Master in English Language Education (TESOL)

Graduate School, UHAMKA University

              

Pop Quiz : Curriculum and Material Development.

By

Hariani / NIM : 098066012 Angkatan VI

Web Address : www.hariani25.wordpress.com

Lecturer: Hartoyo, MA., Ph.D

 

1. Analysis of the development/revision of curriculum that occurred in Indonesia.

Why should the curriculum change? Thus the question is often asked people, when responding to the curriculum changes that occurred in Indonesia. The answer is also very diverse, depending on the perception and understanding of each level. Throughout its history, in Indonesia has changed several times until there is an impression in public that “the ministers change, change curriculum”.

Curriculum change is basically required when the curriculum is applicable (current curriculum) has been considered ineffective and no longer relevant to the demands and changing times and any changes will contain certain risks and consequences.

Changes in the national curriculum is often invited a number of questions and debate, given its impact is very broad and contains a very large risk, especially if the change occurs suddenly and in a short time and with no clear basis.

Indonesian government, up to this point has been conducting curriculum adjustment for five times, which were conducted in 1965, 1974, 1984,  and 2004. The last curriculum adjustment, which was conducted in 2004, is known as Competence- Based Curriculum.  The Competence- Based Curriculum is then formulated and revised to be come School-Based Curriculum (SBC), known as Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP).

Competency-Based Curriculum is the plan and arrangement of competencies and learning outcomes to be achieved by students, assessment, teaching and learning activities, and empowerment of educational resources in the development of school curriculum. Competency-Based Curriculum-oriented: (1) outcomes and impacts expected to appear in self-learners through a series of meaningful learning experiences, and (2) diversity can be manifested in accordance with their needs (Puskur, 2002a).

The rationale for using the concept of competence in the curriculum is as follows.

(1)       Competence with regard to students’ ability to do things in different contexts.

(2)       Competence describes the experience of learning through which students to become competent.

(3)       Competent is the result of learning (learning outcomes), which explains the things that students do after going through the learning process.

(4)       The reliability of students’ ability to do something should be clearly defined and broad in a standard that can be achieved through measurable performance.

Substantially, the application KSTP is to implement existing regulations, namely the PP. 19/2005. However, the essence of the content and direction of the development achievement of learning are still characterized by packets of competence , namely:

(1)       Emphasis on the achievement of competencies students both individually and classical.

(2)       Oriented to learning outcomes (learning outcomes) and diversity

(3)       Conducting of learning using various approaches and methods.

(4)       The sources of learning not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet the educational element.

(5)       Assessment emphasis on process and learning outcomes in an effort to achieve a mastery or competence.

We understand that since first enacted SBC/ KTSP that seemed suddenly, curriculum development activities at the school are very likely beginning with “compulsion” to comply with applicable regulations, so that the model developed may not fully describe the actual school needs and conditions. Therefore, to obtain an appropriate curriculum models, certainly needed improvements that are constantly under evaluation data, and eventually found a model curriculum more in line with the characteristics and the real conditions of school.

Therefore, in order to find a suitable model in the school curriculum, should be established at the school level curriculum development team tasked to manage the school curriculum in schools. Indeed today, in the schools had appointed a special officer in charge of the curriculum. But in general they tend to be busy with tasks that are just routine and technical nature only, such as scheduling classes, perform general tests or other routine activities. Effort to design, implement, and evaluate and develop a more innovative curriculum seems less attention.

With the Curriculum Development Team in the school, curriculum management activities may be much more focused, so in turn education in schools would be far more effective and efficient.

2. The current primary and secondary curriculum implemented in Indonesia

 

The current curriculum implemented in Indonesia is known as Kurikulum Tinngkat Satuan Pendidikan abbreviated by KTSP (School-Based Curriculum abbreviated by SBC).

School-based curriculum (SBC) is the general policy ordained by the Curriculum Development Council for schools’ consideration in the design of a quality curriculum conducive to effective pupil learning. Schools are encouraged to adapt the Central Curriculum to suit their unique contexts. When designing the school-based curriculum, schools are advised to observe closely the directions and requirements stipulated by the Curriculum Development Council in the official curriculum documents. Based on careful analysis of pupils’needs, abilities and interests, schools’ ecological contexts, leadership style of the principals and middle management, as well as the readiness of teachers, schools need to employ the most appropriate teaching, learning and assessment strategies and use diversified learning materials to integrate the teaching-learning-assessment cycle in their school-based curriculum. It is important to ensure that all pupils have equal opportunities participating in rich learning experiences that aim at promoting whole person development and life long learning.

The previous curriculum is Competence-Based Curriculum.

Competency-Based Curriculum is the plan and arrangement of competencies and learning outcomes to be achieved by students, assessment, teaching and learning activities, and empowerment of educational resources in the development of school curriculum. Competency-Based Curriculum-oriented: (1) outcomes and impacts expected to appear in self-learners through a series of meaningful learning experiences, and (2) diversity can be manifested in accordance with their needs (Puskur, 2002a).

Competency-based curriculum has the following characteristics:

  1. Emphasis on the achievement of competencies students both individually and classical.
  2. Outcome-based learning (learning outcomes) and diversity.
  3. Delivery of learning using various approaches and methods.
  4. Source of learning not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet the educational element.

The differences of the current curriculum and previous curriculum.

There are fundamental differences compared to the previous competency-based curriculum (version 2002 and 2004), that the schools were given full authority to plan their education with reference to the standards that have been established, ranging from goal, the vision – mission, structure and curriculum, the burden of learning, education calendar, until the development of syllabus.

3.  Analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the current curriculum known as Scholl-Based Curriculum (SBC)/KTSP

A. Strengths of SBC

Each curriculum that implemented in Indonesia has the advantages of each depending on the situation and current conditions in which the curriculum is implemented. In my opinion, SBC has several advantages when compared with the previous curriculum, especially curriculum 2004 or CBC. SBC advantages include:

  1. Promote the establishment of school autonomy in education.

It is inevitable that one form of the failure of curriculum implementation in the past is the uniform curriculum throughout Indonesia, not looking at the real situation on the ground, and undervalue the potential of local excellence. Given this uniformity, in the city schools with schools in the suburbs or in rural areas. This also has implications for curriculum uniformity on the fact that some schools in agricultural areas with schools that the coastal areas, rural schools together with industry in the area of ​​tourism. Therefore, the curriculum has become less operational, so it does not give sufficient competence for students to develop themselves and distinctive strengths of the region. As the implications of this uniformity as a result, graduates do not have competitive power in the world of work and has implications also to rising unemployment. For that the presence of SBC is expected to give a concrete answer to quality education in Indonesia.
In the spirit of autonomy, the school together with school committees to jointly formulate a curriculum to suit the needs, situation and condition of the school environment. As something new, the school may have difficulty in preparing the curriculum. Therefore, if necessary, schools may consult either vertically or horizontally. Vertically, the school may consult the District Education Office or the City, Provincial Education, Quality Assurance Institute of Education (LPMP) Province, and the Ministry of National Education. While horizontally, schools can partner with education stakeholders in formulating the curriculum. For example, industry, handicraft, tourism, farmers, fishermen, professional organizations, and so that the curriculum made by the school was really able to answer the needs in areas where the school is located.

  1. Encourage teachers, principals, and the school management to further enhance creativity in the administration of educational programs.
    With a curriculum guide based on the level of primary and secondary education unit made ​​by BNSP, schools were given flexibility to design, develop, and implement school curriculum according to the situation, conditions, and potential local benefits that can be raised by the school. Schools can develop higher standards of content standards and standards of competency.
    As is known, the principle of curriculum development are (1) Based on the potential, progress, needs and interests of learners and their environment, (2) Diverse and integrated, (3) Responding to developments in science, technology, and art, (4) Relevant with the needs of life, (5) Comprehensive and sustained (6) of lifelong learning; (7) and the balance between national interests and regional interests. Based on these principles, SBC is very relevant to the concept of decentralization of education in line with the implementation of regional autonomy and the concept of school-based management (SBM) which includes the autonomy of schools in it. Local governments can more freely improvise in improving the quality of education. In addition, schools were given autonomy along with the school committee set its own curriculum in accordance with the needs in the field.
  1. SBC is possible for every school to focus and develop specific subjects are acceptable for the needs of students.
    In accordance with the policy of the Ministry of National Education as stipulated in Regulation No. minister. 22 Year 2006 on Content Standards (SI) and Regulation No. minister. 23 of 2006 on Standards of Competence Graduates (SKL), schools are required to prepare their own curriculum. Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) that allows schools focus on certain subjects that are considered most needed students. For instance, schools that are in the area of ​​tourism can be more focused on the subjects of English or subjects in other tourism areas.
    schools not only makes the matter of English and tourism as subjects, but more than that to make these subjects as a skill. So later if the learners in this environment have finished their studies when they have no desire to continue her studies to pursue their college work directly apply the knowledge and skills already acquired in school.
    SBC is actually easier, because teachers are given the freedom to develop students’ competence in accordance with the environment and local culture. SBC also does not regulate in detail the teaching and learning activities (KBM) in the classroom, but teachers and schools were given discretion to develop itself in accordance with state and local students. In addition, the bottom line is that that will be issued by BNSP is not a curriculum but rather Guidelines for Curriculum Development, 2006
  1. SBC will reduce the burden of student learning is very dense and weigh approximately 20%..

With SBC’s entry into force will be able to reduce the burden of learning as much as 20% because SBC is much simpler. In addition to class hours will be reduced between 100-200 hours per year, teaching materials that are considered burdensome students would be reduced. Although there is a reduction of hours of lessons and teaching materials, SBC still put pressure on developing students’ competencies.
Reduction of hours of student learning is a recommendation from BNSP. This recommendation can be said quite unique, because for years the burden of student learning have not changed, and usually that change is the teaching methods and textbooks alone. Hour lessons are usually applied to students previously ranged between 1000-1200 hours of lessons a year. If the usual one-hour lessons for elementary, junior high and high school is 45 minutes, then BNSP recommendation proposes the reduction for SD to 35 minutes every hour lesson, for the junior to 40 minutes, and for the high school has not changed, which is still 45 minutes every hour lesson. Total of 1,000 hours of lessons in one year, assuming there are 36-40 weeks a year effective learning activities in a week mengajar.dan includes 36-38 hours of lessons.
Reduction of class hours holding of the reasons is because according to education experts that the lessons in schools had been too much. Moreover, there are many teaching and learning activities that focused on face-to-face classroom activities. So that the atmosphere created was a very formal impression. Impact may not realize is that students are too burdened with hours of lessons. Due to further the affects childhood development.

This problem is more pronounced for elementary and junior high students. In the age of the child, they need time to play enough to develop his personality. Formal atmosphere created by the school, plus the standard hours of lessons a relatively long time, will certainly give a psychological impact on the child’s own. Many experts are assessing the school had been depriving the child to develop naturally personality.

This is the rationale that the school hours for students needs to be reduced. However, the reduction was not carried to the extreme by cutting the hours the frequency of student-related subjects in the classroom. But a little cut, or eliminate the saturation point students towards the subjects of the day due to too long struggled with the lesson.

It could be argued that the implementation of this curriculum as a continuous improvement efforts. For example, the 1994 curriculum can be judged as a heavy curriculum in its application. 1994 when enacted curriculum many schools are too eager to improve the competence of science students, science and technology so that the charge was raised. But the unfortunate human resources available are not yet ready, so the result is only about 30% of students are able to implement the curriculum.

  1. SBC provides wider opportunities to schools, plus to develop a curriculum that suits your needs.
    The pattern of new curricula (SBC) will give a fresh breeze in schools nationwide that call themselves a plus. Private schools are now rife that sprung up since the last few years have developed variations on the curriculum set by the government. So when the government then it should require the enrichment of each school, schools, plus it will obviously be welcomed.The presence of SBC could be good news for schools plus. Some schools plus those who are worried there are reprimanded for wearing or using the term bilingual curriculum is diverse in its present form. Now all forms of improvisation is not exempt from the guidelines set out in the curriculum.For example, High School Scope Indonesia, formerly from the start stand in 1990 has used a combination of curriculum Indonesia with the United States (U.S.). Although licensed by the U.S., but it still comply with the government curriculum. The trick to comply with the minimum limit, but optimally provide emphasis on certain aspects that are not regulated by the curriculum. For example to keep providing the material in Indonesian, but use English as main language of instruction.

B. Weaknesses SBC

Each curriculum that implemented in Indonesia in addition has certain advantages also have weaknesses-weaknesses. As logical consequences of the implementation of this curriculum, at least according to the authors there are some weaknesses-weaknesses in the curriculum and its application, among which are as follows:

  1. Lack of human resources is expected to describe the curriculum in most existing educational unit.

The pattern of application of SBC or knock on the 2006 curriculum was the lack of quality teachers and schools. Most teachers can not be expected to contribute thoughts and creative ideas to describe the curriculum guide (SBC), both on paper and in front of the class. Besides caused by low qualifications, also caused the pattern of the old curriculum who already curb the creativity of teachers.

  1. Lack of availability of facilities and infrastructure to support the completeness of the implementation of the curriculum.

Availability of facilities and infrastructure are complete and representative is one of the most urgent requirement for the implementation of the curriculum. While conditions in the field indicates there are many educational units were minimal props, laboratories and facilities of the main requirements the application of SBC.

  1. There are still many teachers who have not been well understood in a comprehensive curriculum concept, formulation and practice in the field.
    The low quantity of teachers who are expected to understand and master the curriculum can be caused due to the implementation of socialization still has not been done thoroughly.
  2. Application of SBC is recommending the reduction of class hours will have reduced the income of the teachers.
    Implementation of the Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) will add to problems in education. Besides facing the school changed its curriculum unpreparedness, SBC also threaten the income of teachers. As is known to the implementation of recommendations related to SBC BSNP the implications for the reduction in the number of teaching hours. This resulted in a reduced number of teaching hours of teachers. As a result, teachers are threatened not get allowance and functional.