TASK 1 of Curriculum and Material Development

Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka

THE PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

By

Hariani / NIM : 098066012 Angkatan VI

Web Address : www.hariani25.wordpress.com

Lecturer: Hartoyo, MA., Ph.D

 

Ralph W. Tyler (1949) published his classic text on curriculum development. It was organized around four questions:

1.      What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

2.      What educational experiences can be provided that likely to attain the purposes?

3.      How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

4.      How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

Judith Howard (2007) tries to simplify (but does not change the meaning) the four basic principles in curriculum development . In his shot article Judith Howard, written to help educational institutions engage in curriculum building, called for the application of four corresponding principles in the development of any curriculum:

1.          Defining goals

2.          Establishing corresponding learning experiences

3.          Organizing learning experiences to have a cumulative effect

4.          Evaluating outcomes

A. The understanding about of  four basic principles

My understanding about the four basic principles of curriculum and instruction known as Tyler’s principles and then simplified by Judith Howard (2007) are as follows:

From the table of four basic principles of curriculum development bellow we can see a comparison of Tyler’s principles to principles  that have been simplified by Judith Howard (2007.

Table

A comparison of Tyler’s principles (1949) to Judith Howard (2007.

Ralph Tyler (1949)

Judith Howard (2007)

1.      What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

1.      Defining goals

2.      What educational experiences can be provided that likely to attain the purposes?

2.      Establishing corresponding learning experiences

3.      How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

3.      Organizing learning experiences to have a cumulative effect

4.      How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

4.      Evaluating outcomes

From the above table it can be concluded that Curriculum development should begin by answering four basic questions raised by Tyler. In answering Tyler’s questions, there are four  basic steps of curriculum development as follow:

  • Selection of aims, goal and objectives
  • Selecting of learning experiences and content
  • Organization of learning experiences
  • Evaluation of the extent to which the objectives have been achieved

Four basic steps of curriculum development must be conducted in curriculum development so that the goals and objectives will be compatible with mission of institution and others stakeholder.

1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

This means that the first step of curriculum development is to determine what AIMs, GOALs, and OBJECTIVEs should be attained in each level of education, elementary school, secondary school and high school.

Institution should define overall goals and aims for the curriculum. Specific measurable knowledge, skill/ performance, attitude, and process objectives should be stated for the curriculum.
Learning goals and outputs for every course and subject should be compatible with mission of institution. It means that achieving of learning goals of different subjects and courses will lead to reaching mission of institution at the end of student studding process.

2.      What educational experiences can be provided that likely to attain the purposes?

The educational experiences can be provided that likely to achieve the purposes. Learning experiences that may be useful in attaining these goals will be selected must meet the criteria for selecting experience; are they:

  • valid in light of the ways in which knowledge and skills will be applied in out-of-school experiences?
  • feasible in terms of time, staff expertise, facilities available within and outside of the school, community expectations?
  • optimal in terms of students’ learning the content?
  • capable of allowing students to develop their thinking skills and rational powers?
  • capable of stimulating in students greater understanding of their own existence as individuals and as members of groups?
  • capable of fostering in students an openness to new experiences and a tolerance for diversity?
  • such that they will facilitate learning and motivate students to continue learning?
  • capable of allowing students to address their needs?
  • such that students can broaden their interests?
  • such that they will foster the total development of students in cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social, and spiritual domains?

3.      How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

Education experiences must be organized to reinforce each other. We have to plan and organize the appropriate method, technique and the ways to achieve the goals  effectively.

4.      How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

To make sure  whether the purposes are being attained or not, of course we have to do evaluation. We have to evaluate all the experiences without exception. And this evaluation should be conducted continuously by the evaluator, in order to develop curriculum from time to time.

“The process of evaluation,” according to Tyler, “is essentially the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction.”

 

B. My comments toward the  principles proposes by Tyler and Judith

I understand and basically agree with the four principles of curriculum development are proposed by Tyler and Judith. I agree that the first step of Curriculum development  we have to answer four basic questions proposes  by Tyler and subsequently implement the steps are proposed by Judith. But it should be noted that the four principles or four steps are just a basic, Because they can be more than four in doing details of curriculum development.

The principles of curriculum development proposed by Ralph W. Tyler (1949) is a  monumental work on the principles of curriculum development has been referred and cited by curriculum developer/specialist around the world. I have proved this after I read a lot of literatures and journals on curriculum development, almost all books and journals on curriculum development referred and quoted Tyler’s principles.