PRODI PEND. BAHASA INGGRIS
PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UHAMKA
FINAL ASSIGNMENT OF CURRICULUM & MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT 2011
TEACHING MATERIALS AND EVALUATION SYSTEM USED IN THE SCHOOL-BASED CURRICULUM (KTSP) FOR THE TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE
AT SMPN II BANDUNG
1. Backgroun of Study
Today, education is doing a basic innovation related to the school curriculum. The innovation demands the change of the way of thinking, the learning method, and the evaluation technique. Related to this problem, The National Education Department has changed the previous curriculum- Competence Level Based Curriculum (C LBC) – with the new one called Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) and in English language it is called by School Level Based Curriculum (SLBC). Here, curriculum is a set of plans and rules about goals, contents, and learning materials as well as the way of using it as guidance for implementation of learning activities that is aimed at a specific goal National Education Standardized Institution (BSNP, 2006). SLBC is an operational curriculum which is prepared and implemented in each educational unit. SLBC consists of the target education of level based education, structure and contents of curriculum in educational unit level, educational calendar and syllabus.
Regarding that the correlation between education and curriculum is closely related, it seems that there is coordination between the education goals and the curriculum content. It means that curriculum compounds of many components such as the goal, the indicator, method and evaluation (Burhan Nurgiantoro: 1999). Considering that, the nature of curriculum consists of values and aspirations of educations, both of them become the content and tools in achieving certain education goals. Therefore, applying the education process may refer to the process of realizing and implementing those values and ideas into concrete activity, in this case, the evaluation of how such kind of curriculum is implemented by some educational personnel‘s including the teachers, thestakeholder and other personnel of the school in doing learning process in classroom.
Moreover, since the reformation changes many aspects of human life including education system, it also affects the changes of curriculum used in the school system. The central government as the highest control holder gives the education unit an authority to manage the school including the curriculum used. In this case, the school may have the authority to derive the competency standard licensed by the central government. Thus, the teachers may adopt some derivational materials based on the specification, condition and potency of the regency need called as the School Based Curriculum Development, which is also popular as KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan).
Based on the Education Regulation number 20 year 2003 about national Education system 36 (1) and (2) become the curriculum references consisting of the plan and stages that are aimed to establish national education goals. KTSP is defined as an operational curriculum that is arranged and done by the school and adapted to the characteristics, conditions and potency of regency including the religion and pupils needs which stated as follows:
Moreover, based on the regulation number 19 year 2005 about Education National Standard section four pasal 17, which regulate about Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan.
In line with that definition, the depth of KTSP content spells out into some standards, which regulate about the implementation of content standard, graduates competency standard and the derivational implementation of those references in conducting the teaching learning process.
The content standard as the Based on regulation number 19 year 2005 pasal 5, which regulate about the content standard covering the scopes of material of the subject matter and the minimum grades competency that should be possessed by the students.
In addition, the implementation of KTSP is escorted with the earlier curriculum in 2004 that is popularly called Competency Based Curriculum (CBC). Both of KTSP and CBC emphasizes on some competences which should be possessed by the student based on licensed by the central government. In other side, KTSP, which had released in 2006, is the derivational curriculum development of CBC. In implementing KTSP, the teachers could be unhampered to improve, to be more creative and practical in learning process which is suited with the characteristics of school, the region and the pupils.
Furthermore, although good planning about curriculum is important– that is KTSP, the evaluation of the curriculum implemented is also necessary. The success of education policy is based on the measurement of how well the curriculum implemented. The planning policy is functional; therefore, the realization of the planning policy has to deal with the application of this. Both of them are important to measure weather the implementation of the curriculum is well conducted or not since the implementation of KTSP does not only to replace the curriculum used but also another influential factor affecting the teaching learning process. It means that the implementation of KTSP changes not only the, teacher‘s methods and strategies in learning process but also the teacher‘s paradigm philosophy underlying the concept, the teacher‘s perception, the students, the school and other personnel‘s related to education system etc.
Based on the description above, the researcher is interested to study about the implementation of KTSP in teaching English in SMPN II Bandung especially in the teaching material dan the evaluation system used in this school. The writer’s reason in choosing SMP N II Bandung is because SMP N II Bandung has been applying KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) or the School Level Based Curriculum. The school emphasizes speaking skill as the way of entering language to the students. This is aimed at developing oral skill of the students in learning English.
2. Problem Statement
In this study, it is better to identify the problems covering the study. To make the study clearer the writer identifies the problems as follows:
a. How well is the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the teaching materials
b. How well is the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the evaluation system used in the school?
3. The Objective of the Study
This study aims at finding the answer to the questions stated in the problem statements. Thus, the objectives of the study are:
a. To describe the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the teaching materials?, and (b) the evaluation system used in the school?
b. To describe the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the evaluation system used in the school.
B. Review of Related Literature
a. The Definition of Curriculum
There are many point of views related to the definition of curriculum. A definition from the Education Regulation number 20 year 2003 about National Educational System becomes the underlying concept of curriculum. It stated that curriculum is a set of plan and regulation dealing with the goals, content, materials and ways used as direction of teaching activities process to reach the education goals including national education goals.
Furthermore, Lawrence Stenhouse (1985), he defined that curriculum is a systematic collection of accumulated knowledge and experience from multitude of sources that guides classroom practice. Moreover, he argued that a curriculum should consist of three major parts related to some components namely planning, empirical study and justification. In line with that definition, the process model developed has three major things related to the curriculum development in general. It is generated from the classroom situation during teaching and learning process. In the first place, it matches with the central place in the curriculum process to an analysis about what is actually happened in classroom during teaching and learning process, secondly, teacher acknowledge to their position as a central role in curriculum development process. Finally, curriculum becomes the major way to reflect the teacher‘s currents performance in teaching class through critical analysis and reflection.
In line with the opinion above, according to Nunan in Richard (1987), a curriculum definition can be seen from some views namely, as a product, as a planning, and as a process. The first side views curriculum as product or set items to be taught. At the second views, curriculum is seen as the sequence of planning materials for teaching students. The last side views that curriculum as a process for deriving materials. Furthermore, Douglass in Oemar Hamalik (2001: p. 17) stated that;
”Curriculum is broad and varied as the child‘s school environment. Broadly conceived, curriculum embraces not only on the subject matter but also various aspects of the physical and social environment consisting of school facilities, subject matter, other children and teacher from interaction or the child with these elements learning results”.
In addition, as quoted in Oliva (1992), Hollis L. Caswell and Doak S. Campbell viewed curriculum as all the experiences children posses under the teacher‘s guidance. In line with that opinion, J.Galen Saylor, William M, Alexander and Arthur Lewis defined that curriculum is a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for students to be educated.
b. Approach in Curriculum Development
Approaches in curriculum development mean many things. One of them is curriculum construction or the curriculum improvement. It is related to the arrangement of all curriculum dimensions, the structure of subject matter, scopes, sequences, and macro curriculum. According to Syaodih in Mulyasa (2000), there are some approaches in developing curriculum namely curriculum development approach based on the organizational system and curriculum development approach based on target focus which is also consisted of the curriculum development approach based on the competency approach.
1). Curriculum Development Approach Based on the Organizational System
Based on the organizational system, this approach concern more on the legitimacy of central rule. There is one kind of regulation rules in the nations. Based on this approach, it can be seen as the centralistic regulation up to the democratic regulation in decentralist regulation. In centralization curriculum, it is just one curriculum in a kind of educational level in Indonesia. It is national curriculum, various, developed by the central government, the teachers just derivate annually planning and the unit of teaching etc.
In contrast, the decentralization curriculum is the changing of the authority from the central government and providing more autonomy that is coupled with accountability to institutions. In the broader context, national level reflections were engaged for developing a new vision of education, as part of the reformations in Indonesia, which emphasizes on the implementation of the principles of democracy, autonomy, decentralization, and public accountability.
2). Curriculum Development Approach Based on Target Focus.
In this approach, curriculum development is concerned on some aspects that are:
a) Knowledge mastery approach; it is a model of curriculum development which focuses on the content or materials in the form of knowledge, comprehension, application and analysis, synthesis of evaluation that are taken from science fields.
b) Standard skill approach; it focuses on the mastering of student‘s potential skill in harmony with their developments stages.
c) Personal building approach; it focuses on the development or the establishment of personal aspects totally, knowledge, skill, value or attitude.
d) Problem solving approach; the curriculum development focuses on the development of solving urgent problems in society.
e) Competency mastery approach is a model of curriculum, which focuses on certain comprehension, skill or competency in the school related to jobs that exist in society.
3). Competency Approach
It is an approach, which focuses on the mastery of certain competency based on the student‘s development stages. Each of stages has some potency but those very influences the environment and the chance they get.
In line with the explanation above, Zainudin in his book entitled “Reformasi Pendidikan”, he argued that curriculum which is referred to the students for facing the global need is concerned to competency. This approach emphasizes on the acquiring of the student‘s competency based on the student‘s phases development. Curriculum development model is concerned on the student‘s life skill, capability and competency for overcoming social problem in real daily life.
In unit teaching, according to constructivism view, the students are educated to think creatively on their own knowledge. According to Martinis Yamin (2005) in “Paradigma Pendidikan Konstruktivistik”, the implication of this covers.
a) students form their own knowledge
b) students create the meaning nuance
c) students search the information
d) students have critical attitude
2. Competency Based Curriculum
a. Definition of Competency
According to Mc.Ashan (1981: 45), a competency is knowledge, skills and abilities or capabilities that one‘s achieved, which becomes part of his or her being to the extent he or she can satisfactory, perform particular cognitive, affective and psychomotor behavior. Moreover, competency is basic ability that student do in the stages of knowledge, skills and attitude (http:www.org/org/erieel/digest/Rodgers.htm)
Based on Association K.U. Leuven, a competency is an integration of knowledge, skills and behavior that makes the possibility to do work effectively. Furthermore, Robert A. Roe (2001) stated a definition of competency:
“Competency is defined as the ability to adequately perform a task, duty or role. Competency integrates knowledge, skills, personal values and attitudes. Competency builds on knowledge and skills and is acquired through work experience and learning by doing”.
In addition, Hall and Jones (1976: 29) argued that competency is comprehensive performance descriptions of a certain ability, which is consisted of combination between knowledge and competency that can be observed and measured (http://www.ditpertais.net/swara/warta17-03.asp).
In short, a competency is a set of one‘s ability consisting of knowledge, skills and abilities, personal values and attitudes or capabilities achieved to do a task, duty or role in order to perform particular cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain.
b. Definition of Competency Based Curriculum
Competency Based Curriculum is a set of planning and rules about competency and learning outcomes that should be achieved by the students, evaluation system, learning activity and the sources of education capacity in curriculum development. This curriculum concerns more on the development of competency that should be possessed by the students.
In the line with that opinion, Mulyasa (2006) argued the definition of Competency Based Curriculum is:
“KBK dapat diartikan sebagai suatu konsep yang menekankan pada pengembangan kemampuan melakukan (kompetensi) tugas-tugas dengan standar performasi tertentu sehingga hasilnya dapat dirasakan oleh peserta didik berupa penguasaan terhadap seperangkat kompetensi tertentu”.
Based on that definition, the concept of Competency Based Curriculum emphasizes on the student‘s development ability to do the tasks based on the standard of its certain performance; therefore, in mastering that competency, the students acknowledge the result of certain competency.
In short, Competency Based Curriculum is a set of planning and rules about competency and learning outcomes that should be achieve by the students, the evaluation system, learning activity and the sources of educational capacity consisting of basic knowledge, skill, attitudes and values essential to competency.
c. The Characteristics of Competency Based Curriculum
According to National Education System year 2002, there are some characteristics of Competency Based Curriculum. Those are:
1). it is concerned on the students competency achievement either individually and classically.
2). it is oriented on learning outcomes and diversity.
3). it delivered to learning process using vary approaches and methods.
4). the using of learning sources are not only teacher but also another learning sources, which fill the education substance.
5). the evaluation emphasizes on the learning process and learning outcomes in order to acquire and achieve certain competency.
Furthermore, Mulyasa argued that there are six characteristics of the Competency Based Curriculum. Those are:
1). Learning system using module
2). Using all of learning sources
3). Learning field experience
4). Personal individual strategy
5). Ease and joyful learning
6). Complete learning.
d. Principles in the Development of Competency Based Curriculum
According to National Education System year 2002, there are many principles in developing competence-based curriculum. There covers:
1). Faith, value and the high attitude
2). The reinforcing of the national integrity
3). The balancing of ethics, logical, aesthetics, and kinesthetic value.
4). The equality of getting chance
5). Responsive to the development of science, knowledge, technology, and art.
6). The development of life skills
7). Long life learning
8). Concerning on student‘s evaluation simultaneously, continuously, and comprehensively.
9). Comprehensive and partnership approach
Based on the theory above, the development of Competency Based Curriculum is influenced by some aspects related to the learners‘ potential, needs, and interest; and environment.
3. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan
a. Definition of KTSP
According to the education regulation number 20 year 2003 about National Education System, Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is defined as an operational curriculum arranged and applied by each education unit. Furthermore, Badhowi (2004) stated that KTSP is as an operational curriculum that is arranged, applied by the school and adapted to the characteristics, the conditions and the potency of regency had by the region, school and the pupils. KTSP itself refers to the content standard and the graduate competency standard licensed by the Education National Standard Committee.
In line with that opinion, Mulyasa (2006) defined KTSP Curriculum as a derivational model curriculum in a school level, which is developed and suited to the characteristics of the school, the region, the social characteristics of the surrounding and the characteristics of its pupils.
In addition, Kunandar (2007:103) argued that KTSP is an operational curriculum that is arranged and applied by each educational unit that reflects on knowledge, skills and attitude so that it can increase the whole student‘s potency.
Based on the definition above, KTSP can be defined as the operational curriculum of the competency-based curriculum that is arranged and applied by each educational unit, which is suited and adapted to the characteristics of school, region and socials and pupils.
b. Characteristics of KTSP
According to Ahiri (2007: 6), KTSP is the development model of the Competency Based Curriculum that has some characteristics:
1). It is oriented to the learner outcomes and its effects.
2). It is based on competency standard and basic competency that is spelt out into content standard.
3). It is based on the graduation competency standard.
4). It is concerned more on the diversity of curriculum model
5). It develops the whole and overall competencies
6). It applies complete learning.
Related to the explanation above, Mulyasa argued that there are at least four characteristics of KTSP, which can be identified, namely:
1). The full authority of headmaster and educational unit
Each school has a board of trustee that is responsible for all aspects of school operation. In this case, the headmaster has some rules dealing with the school operation such as the full authority holder of the school and the decision maker of the school together with school committee. Related to the concept of KTSP, the headmaster should be able to adopt the student‘s need and the local community need based on the characteristics and cultural environment background.
2). Parents and society have more influences
Parents and society may also participate in making school decision. Through the school council, parents and society are able to supervise and help the school in managing the school program. The participation can be taken directly and indirectly in school program and learning process.
3). The democratic and professional leadership
According to Sutisna (1993), the leadership can be defined as a process of affecting individual or group activity in order to achieve the intended goal in certain condition. In a school, the headmaster has the significant role in determining the school policy.
Dealing with the concept of KTSP, the existence of the headmaster as the person elected by the school committee and some school personnel‘s hold the responsibility for creating conducive atmosphere, which is suited to teaching learning process dealing with school decision. The headmaster has the high authority for making school decisions in line with the school committee agreement.
4). Transparent Teamwork
A school system consists of some intercorelated components namely the students, the teachers, parents, and some other school personnel. Those all components work together in order to realize the intended goal. It means that those work need good coordination. In addition, based on Handayaningrat (1992) in Mulyasa, there are some characteristics of “coordination”, that are:
a) The responsibility of coordination is holding on the leader.
b) Coordination deals with the cooperation
c) Coordination is continuous process
d) The effort manage regularly and properly
e) The integrity of activity is done as the core of coordination
f) The aim of coordination is the common purpose.
Based on those characteristics, all school components are demanded to conduct and manage the coordination properly in order to achieve the certain purpose. Related to the KTSP concept, the intended goals have to deal with the mission and visions of the school.
c. Principles in the Development of KTSP
According to the education regulation number 20 year 2003, there are some operational references in arranging KTSP:
Focused on learners‘ potential, development, needs, and interest; and their environment.
1). Focused on learners‘ potential, development, needs, and interest; and their environment
Curriculum is developed based on the principle that learners have their own unique potential to develop their competency to become religiously devoted, bright, competitive, and responsible citizens. It is, therefore, the development of this potential is done based on the learners potentials and develomental needs. The learners are supposed to be the central attention of learning activities (learners oriented curriculum).
2). Varied and integrated
Curriculum is developed by keeping in mind the diversity of learners characteristic, geography condition, level and type of education, as well as appreciating differences in religion, ethnics, culture, tradition, socio-economics status, and gender. Curriculum must contain required subjects, local content, and integrated self development and is developed in a meaningful and right intersubjects integration.
3). Responsive to the development of science, knowledge, technology, and art
Curriculum is developed based on awareness that science, knowledge, technology, and art developing dynamically. Therefore, the curriculum spirit and content are required to provide learners with learning experience that enable them to keep up with and utilize science, knowledge, technology, and art development.
4). Relevant with the need of life
Curriculum is developed by involving the stakeholders to ensure its relevance to the needs of life, which include social life, business, and employment. It is, therefore, educational institutions have to include the development of personal, thinking, social, academic, and vocational skills.
5). Comprehensive and continued
Curriculum content includes the whole dimensions of competencies and subjects that are planned and presented continuously through all educational level. It means, therefore, that the same subject may be presented at different level, but with diverse depth and scope.
6). Life long learning
Curriculum is directed toward the process of learners‘ development, acculturation, and empowerment in the frame of lifelong learning. The curriculum reflects the interrelation of formal, non-formal, and informal education by paying attention to the ever-changing environment condition and demand.
7). Balancing national and regional interests.
Curriculum is developed by paying attention to the national and regional interest in order to develop a well-balanced life in community, nation, and state. National and regional interests must be kept in balance with the motto of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia: unity through diversity.
In line with that opinion, Ahiri (2007:6) stated that KTSP is an operational curriculum arranged and done by the educational units that consists of the goals at educational unit level, the structure and content of KTSP, education calendar and syllabuses.
In harmony with this idea, Mulyasa (2006) argued that there are six components of KTSP namely:
1). Vision and mission of school
A vision is a set of representative of belief as a view of customers, staff, stakeholders, and the manager. While mission is the step which is arranged in order to gain the vision. Related to education system, each school must have those components as the representation of school belief as the references in conducting school operations. All school programs conducted should be matched to those components.
2). Educational goal of school
As a system, a school works together in achieving the education goal of the school. Each school also needs to write its own goals, objectives, and target as clear as possible for long and short period. It makes the school program conducted clearer, more understandable, and measurable.
Dealing with this, school vision and mission usually spell out into the school education goal. All school programs taken should refer to this in order to achieve the intended school goal.
3). Educational calendar
The arrangement of education calendar in one period is used to know the plotting of schedule in conducting teaching learning process. It can be used as a reference to determine the efficiency, affectivity of the student‘s rights of the school program. The content of education calendar is time allotment in conducting the teaching learning process. It consisted of time allotment to face learning for structured task, unstructured independent activity and the time of holiday etc. Moreover, it can be used as reference for estimation of some competencies, which should be possessed by the students during the learning activity, the organization of materials, which should be acquired by the students; the evaluation should be taken etc.
In teaching process, it is known the term ―syllabuses‖. According to Widowson (1991), a syllabus is an idealized schematic construct, which serves as reference for teaching. The specification of syllabuses is concerned with both the selection and the ordering of what is to be taught (Halliday: 1965). Dealing with the content of syllabuses, that consist of standard competency, basic competency, materials, indicators, assessment, time allotment, and resources of teaching developed by each school (Mulyasa: 2006).
In short, a syllabus can be interpreted as a set of teaching plan as the reference of particular subject matter conducted that consist of competency standard, basic competency, materials, indicators, assessment, time allotment, and some other of teaching developed by each school.
5). Lesson Plan
Generally, a lesson plan is a set of plan describing the procedure and learning management in conducting the learning process. The components of lesson plan are competency standard, basic competency, instructional objectives, teaching materials, methods, the steps of learning conducted, the sources of learning and the technique of evaluation.
6). Structure of Subject matter curriculum
According to the Decree of National Education Minister number 22 year 2006, it regulates about content standard. It can be defined as the boundaries of minimum materials and minimum grades competency, which should be possessed by the students in order to achieve minimum graduation competency standard.
Furthermore, some components of the content standard are:
1). Subject Cluster and Scope
The curriculum foundation is the collection of five subject matters, that are:
a) Religion and noble character;
This subject is intended to develop learners to become religiously devoted individuals who posses noble character. The noble characters consist of ethics, good conduct in life, or morality as the realization of religious education.
b) Citizenship and personality
This subject is intended to develop the learners‘ awareness and knowledge with regard to their status, rights, and obligations in community, state, and nation; as well as to improve their quality as human being. The awareness and knowledge include nationality, spirit and patriotism in defending their nation, appreciation of human rights, nation diversity, environment conservation, gender equality, democracy, social responsibility, as well as the promotion of behaviors against corruption, collusion, and nepotism.
c) science and technology
Science and technology at elementary school is intended to introduce, react, and appreciate science and technology, as well as to instill habits of critical, creative, and independent scientific thinking and behavior. Science and technology at junior high school is intended to develop basic competency in knowledge and science as well as to enhance the learners‘ habit of scientific thinking critically, creatively, and independently.
This subject cluster is intended to develop learners‘ sensitivity as well as ability to express and appreciate beauty and harmony. The ability to appreciate and express beauty and harmony consists of appreciation and expression, both in individual life that enable the learners to enjoy and be grateful of life and in community that enable them to create togetherness and harmony.
e) Physical, sport, and health
This subject cluster at junior high school is intended to enhance the learners‘ physical potential as well as to strengthen the habits of sportive and healthy life.
2). Curriculum Structure of Junior High School
The arrangement of subject matter for students:
a) The depth of curriculum contents spells out into some competencies that should be possessed by the students with the burden of study, which is stated on curriculum structure.
b) It is a kind of patterns and structure of subject matter that should be taken up by the students in learning process.
c) It acquires the competency, which is consisted of competency standard and basic competency that are expanded based on graduate competency standard.
d) The content of local subject matter and student self-development are integrated with the school curriculum structure.
3). The content of study
The content of study can be interpreted as the time plotting needed to follow the learning interactions. It consists of some parts that are:
a) time allotment
b) structured assignment
c) unstructured- independent assignment
4). Education calendar
Education calendar is the plotting of teaching learning time allotments for students in a period. It covers the decision of the beginning of year academics, effective learning time and the holiday for the students.
5). Scholl based management
The curriculum used in the school is the curriculum which derived from the KTSP that is arranged and applied by each educational unit which is suited and developed to the characteristics of school, region, pupils and socials.
In addition, based on the regulation rule number 23 year 2006, graduates competency standard is the qualification of the students which covers the students knowledge, attitude and skills. Moreover, the graduate competency standards have some functions that are:
a) It is used for the standard evaluation in determining student‘s graduation of education unit level.
b) In junior high school level, it is used to put the basic intelligence, knowledge, noble character, good attitude and skill for independent supplies and to follow the next education stages.
d. The Competency Standard of English Subject Matter
Competency Standard of English as a subject matter is a potency of measurement in competency minimum, which should be achieved by students after following instruction. The standards of English Subject matter for junior high school students are:
1). Listening; Students are able to understand the meaning of short script and in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context.
2). Speaking; Students are able to express the meaning of short script and in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal conversation in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text, simply conversation and simply monologue in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context.
3). Reading; Students are able to get meaning nuance in the written text like short functional text, text that is in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context.
4). Writing; Students are able to express the meaning nuance in the form of written text like short functional text that is in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context
4. Teaching Material
a. The Definition of Teaching Materials
Teaching materials can also define as the sources of learning. According to Mulyasa (2006), the sources of learning means anything that can give the students information, knowledge, experience and skills in teaching learning process.
Furthermore, learning resources can be defined as the information that is presented and stored in a variety of media and formats, which assists the students learning as defined by provincial or local curricula. This includes but it is not limited to, materials in print, video, and software formats, as well as combinations of these formats intended for use by teachers and students (http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/appskill/ asleares.htm 5 Agustust, 2011).
In short, teaching materials are anything used by the teachers in learning process arranged systematically in order to give the students information during instructions covering to written materials and non-written materials.
b. The Kinds of Teaching Materials
According to Mulyasa (2006), there are some kinds of teaching materials. Those are:
1). Human being; it is the persons delivering the massage directly in learning process. It can be the teachers, the counselors; the administrators who delivered the massage by design.
2). Instructional media; it can be anything contained of education substance that assists learning process. Mostly, the teachers use printed materials such as book, which is licensed by central government, handout, module, brochure, leaflet, wall-chart etc. Besides completing the materials by printed materials, the teachers can use another instructional media by using the educational film, map, etc.
3). Environments; it is related to the setting for learning process happened. It can be classroom, library, laboratories, museums, etc.
4). Tools and devices; it is the sources of learning for production or applying another tool for instance: camera for photograph, tape recorder, LCD projectors, television, radio, etc.
5). Activity; it is the source of learning that consists of the combination of some teaching methods in learning process. It covers events or facts that happened.
c. The Role of Teaching Materials
The role of instructional materials within an individualized instruction system might include the following specifications that are:
1). Materials will allow learners to progress at their own rates of learning.
2). Materials will allow for different styles of learning.
3). Materials will provide opportunities for independent study and use.
4). Materials will provide opportunities for self- evaluation and progress in learning.
Furthermore, Richard and Rogers (2001; 30) state that a particular design for an instructional system may imply a particular set of roles for materials in supporting the syllabuses, the teachers and the learners. They give example of role of instructional materials within a functional or communicative methodology;
1). Materials will focus on the communicative abilities of interpretation, expression and negotiation.
2). Materials will focus on understandable, relevant and interesting exchanges of information, rather than on the presentation of grammatical form.
3). Materials will involve different kind of text
5. The Evaluation System Used in the School
a. The Definition of Evaluation
The term ―evaluation‖ in education system refers to the measurement of the student‘s ability based on the standard licensed. It is necessary to know the student‘s achievement so that the evaluation is held.
Oemar Hamalik (1995: 159) in Paradigma Pendidikan kontruktivistik, argued that evaluation is all measurement activities (including the process of gathering data and information), management, interpretation, and estimation in order to make decisions in students learning outcomes whether it had achieved the learning outcomes or not.
In addition, evaluation also can be defined as the process of giving and determining the mark or value to certain object based on certain criteria (Sudjana, 1990:3). In this case, the point of evaluation is the estimation of student‘s learning outcomes based on the certain measurement. Moreover, Djemari Mardapi (1999: 8) argued that the evaluation is an activity for interpreting and describing the result of measurement.
In short, the evaluation is a systematic process of gathering data and information quantitatively and qualitatively for analyzing and interpreting students learning outcomes in order to make meaningful decisions.
b. Aspects of Evaluation
In some extent, the term evaluation and measurement are interchangeable. According to Benyamin S Bloom as quoted by Martinis Yamin (2008), measuring students learning outcomes covers three domains of learning that are.
1) Cognitive Domain
The major points of this aspect are the ability of individual thinking covering the domain of intelligence. It covers the process of memorizing, understanding, applying, analyzing evaluation and creation.
2) Affective Domain
It involves the domain of feeling, emotional, system values, and attitude that is expressed in accepting or refusing something. The process covers some stages namely receiving, responding, appreciating, organization, characterization.
3) Psychomotor Domain
This domain is related to kinesthetic skills covering body movement and action. This aspect needs the coordination between muscle and neuron. This domain is consisted of gross body movement, coordination movement, non-verbal movement and speech behavior.
In brief, in interpreting the student‘s learning outcomes, it involves the process of measuring competency whether the goal has been achieved or not (after instruction) that covers three domains of learning namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor.
c. Types of Evaluation
According to Mulyasa in Martinis Yamin, there are many ways of evaluations in implementing the curriculum namely:
1). Class-Based evaluation
It is the evaluation, which is done by the teachers during learning process. This involves the collection of information and the students learning outcomes in order to determine the grades of achievement and mastering certain competencies based on standard competency and some indicators, which is stated in curriculum.
2). Basic-competence test
It is for measuring student‘s competency especially in reading, writing and accounting
3). School-based evaluation
It is used for describing the whole student‘s competency and activity during instruction. It is usually done at the end of school grade.
It is a kind of work evaluation and process performance in order to determine the grades of superiority and the success of learning outcomes. It is done at the end of educational unit. This evaluation is used for giving students ranking not for giving students mark.
5). Program evaluation
It is used for measuring the implementation of the learning program in the school whether it is achieved well or not. According to Scriven in Tayibnapis, 2000:36). There are some differences between formative evaluation and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is usually done during the program taken. It is used for giving the valuable information for the teachers in order to correct the program whether it runs well or not. While in summative evaluation, it is done in the end of the instructions. It is used to give potential information for consumer related to the benefit of the program.
6). Porto folio assessment
Porto folios mean the collective of student‘s assignment or worksheet intentionally and integrated that is selected based on the guidelines licensed. Moreover, porto folios assessment can also be regarded as the class based evaluation of collective student‘s assessment, which is arranged systematically and organizationally during learning at certain period by the teachers.
Based on the theory above, the evaluation is used for measuring the student‘s achievement and learning outcomes. The uses of kind of evaluation depend on the instructional objectives stated by the teachers.
This section answers the problem statements (a) how well is the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the teaching materials and the evaluation system used in the school
1. Teaching Materials
According to KTSP, the materials of teaching English in Junior High School should fulfill some basic competencies for each of the language skills. Dealing with this, according to Pedoman Khusus Pengembangan Silabus dan Penilaian Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kurikulum 2006 Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Menengah Pertama, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional 2003, there are four skills that should be possessed by the second grade students of Junior High School at the second semester, namely.
a. listening. Students should be able to understand the meaning of short script in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context,
b. speaking. Students should be able to express the meaning of short script in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal conversation in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text, simple conversation and simple monologue in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context,
c. reading. Students should be able to get the meaning intended in the written text like short functional text, text that is in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context, and
d. writing. Students should be able to express the meaning nuance in the form of written text like short functional text, text that is in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context.
Dealing with the materials used in teaching English, the teacher used the book published by BSE entitled-Let‘s Talk‖. The book consisted of eight chapters completed by the language function and language structure. Besides that, the teacher also used Lembar Kerja Siswa (LKS) as the complementary materials in teaching English published by Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGMP). It consisted of four units that also cover four English integrated skills namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Related to the content of LKS, each chapter of the units contained the exercises of the integrated skills. In every unit, the book was also completed by the language functions and language structure.
UNIT 1 A Huge Snake (Narrative)
Language Function : asking a help, asking permission, confirming and denying fact,
Language Structure : verb + adjective, present perfect tense, modality.
UNIT 2 A Tour Botanical Garden (Recount)
Language Function: asking opinion and giving opinion, responding to someone offering, expressing agreement and disagreement,
Language Structure : past continuous tense,
UNIT 3 Going Fishing (Recount)
Language Function : expressing agreement and disagreement, expressing of starting, extending and ending conversation, expressing polite request and the responses, some expressing to make a call,
Language Structure : simple past tense, direct and reported speech, passive voice
In the teaching and learning process, the teacher also completed the materials by using CD and cassette for listening which were relevant with the materials needed as teaching media. The teacher also used the language laboratory for playing the CD or cassette for listening or writing. It was appropriate with Mulyasa‘s statements (2006), which argued that there were some kinds of teaching materials including human being, instructional media, environments, tools and devices, activity. In addition, it was in line with what the concept of KTSP that used Contextual Teaching Learning by selecting the relevant method in teaching and materials, which is relevant with the daily life context.
2. The Evaluation System of the School Used
In determining that evaluation is to measure students learning outcomes, the writer concerned with three aspects namely cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. The cognitive aspects presented knowledge in vocabulary and language structure, the psychomotor aspects deal with how to produce sounds, while the affective aspects include the right attitude showed by the students toward the lesson.
Evaluation in cognitive aspects was done by giving task for exercise, weekly test, mid-term test and final examination. Moreover, dealing with the curriculum used, the students who had not passed the minimal score, they should follow remedial tests. It was done in order to make up the students score. The minimal score for English Subject Matter in SMP N II Bandung was 6. 3. Meanwhile, the evaluation of psychomotor aspects and affective aspects were taken anytime during teaching and learning process. Those depended on the teachers‘ need. For affective aspect, the teacher also asked the students to perform their English skills in the classroom.
While for psychomotor aspects, the teacher gave the students value when they showed their attention and responsibility toward the lesson. The teacher also gave the additional marks if the students were active in asking and answering the teacher‘s questions or when the students showed their ability to speak English fluently. Their enthusiasm could also be seen through the student‘s presence while joining the English Lesson.
The teacher gave the additional mark if students participate actively in the class. For affective and psychomotor aspects, the students also gave the same impression.
D. Discussion the Teaching Materials and Evaluation System Used in the School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) for the Teaching EFL at SMPN II Bandung
In research findings, some theories concerning with the implementation of KTSP had been discussed by the writer. Those theories were discussed as the result of data analysis. The writer tried to discuss the result of data analysis with the other relevant data in order to justify the research findings.
Firstly, the writer found that the teacher had a good perception about the curriculum used – that is KTSP. In the beginning of the semester, the teacher was required to make a lesson plan based on the available syllabuses. She made it from the first meeting up to the last meeting in a semester. The lesson plan made consisted of learning goals, the materials, teaching methods, learning sources and evaluation system. As stated in Mulyasa (2007), teaching preparation included the syllabuses and the lesson plan that covered some components such as learning goals, teaching materials, teaching methods, learning sources and evaluation system. This perception was appropriate with KTSP implementation that the teacher had to make the teaching preparation before conducting teaching learning process.
Related to the teaching and learning activities, the teacher had done well the step of the teaching. Before teaching, she sometimes reviewed the last material before continuing the next material. Before entering the new material, the teacher asked students questions related to the topic to make the students actively involved to the learning process. It meant that the teacher tried to connect the student‘s knowledge related to the material taught or building knowledge of field (BKOF). Then the teacher continued the next material as the next step of teaching including the modeling and the joint construction and the independent construction. According Depdiknas (2004: 7), in achieving communicative competence, the teacher was suggested to follow some steps of teaching namely the building of field (BKOF), modeling, joint construction and independent construction. Although she did not state those steps explicitly.
Secondly, dealing with the teacher‘s role in learning process, the activities done by the teacher were appropriate with what was stated in KTSP. It could be seen from the observation and the teacher‘s interview that a teacher was a motivator, a guide and a facilitator in which those depended on the method applied and the condition of the students. The teacher tried to grow the student‘s motivation in learning process by enforcing the students to do the work well. Then the teacher acted as a guide and a facilitator while they were conducting the learning process through the class discussion to make the students involved actively. The teacher took a position as the central or observer, to correct the class discussion if there were mistakes or some misconception of students‘ understanding when the teacher delivered the materials to the students.
As stated by Nana Syaodih sukmadinata (1999), the teacher‘s roles related to the curriculum used was that the teacher was a person who had responsibility to plan, implement and evaluate the curriculum for his classes and accommodates it for students needs and local needs. These steps included the process of translating, transforming and interpreting to the curriculum licensed by the government. As the teacher was the person who was the central part in teaching learning process, she or he was the person who was involved directly with the students.
Thirdly, dealing with the student‘s roles, based on the observation and the interview, the students knew about their roles as a subject of teaching learning process. The students had to transfer what they have learnt to their mind for accepting the new knowledge of information. The students involved actively in teaching learning process in class. It could be seen that the students‘ ability in answering the teacher‘s questions, their enthusiasm and their attention in joining the English class. For example, they also had no doubt to ask directly to the teacher or ask the other friends who had understood. On the other hand, they were being creative when they had to do the work well or the assignment given by the teacher. It could be concluded that the students were the subject of teaching learning process although some of them were passive in class. In general, however, most of the students in the class were active rather than passive.
Fourthly, the evaluation that had been done by the teacher was appropriate with the evaluation of KTSP. Generally, the teacher did two kinds of evaluation, namely, in written form and in the spoken form. Those also covered three domains of evaluation that are, cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In the written form that also covered the cognitive form, it could be taken from the daily test, mid tem test, final test, writing assignments, and students portfolios‘, etc. While in spoken form, it could be taken from storytelling in front of class, interviews in pairs etc. Beside cognitive aspects, the affective and psychomotor also could be seen from the students‘ performance in joining the teaching learning process including theirs enthusiasm, their activeness and their presence in joining the English class. It was harmony with the Mulyasa (2006) which stated that there were some evaluation dealing with the students‘ competence namely, class-based evaluation, basic-competence test, school-based evaluation, benchmarking, program evaluation, portfolio assessment, etc.
When the students could not pass the examination, they enforced to follow the remedial test in order to make up the score. Here, the nature of remedial test was giving a chance to students to make up their score who had not obtained 6.3, the KKM score approved by the school for English subject matter. The teacher was suggested to make remedial test. She just asked the students to rework the assignment that was used for daily test or mid term test or final examination test. While for the students who had passed the KKM, they should follow the enrichment.
Fifthly, the materials were varying based on the school and student needs. In delivering the materials, the teacher enriched herself by some materials taken from many sources in order to enrich her while teaching students. Here the teacher used LKS as the major guided book and completed by the guided book published by the BSE entitled-Let‘s Talk‘. The teachers also took another book in order to add and enrich the teaching materials for the students. The teacher also used the book from another publisher such as Erlangga and Yudistira, etc.
Beside the printed materials, the teacher also completed the teaching learning process by using the recorded material such as cassette and CD related to the relevant materials being taught. Dealing with this, the use of language laboratory was optimal enough. The teacher also became creative in selecting the materials. Those matched with the learning resources that are defined as the information that was presented and stored in a variety of media and formats, which assists students learning as defined by provincial or local curricula. This includes but is not limited to, materials in print, video, and software formats, as well as combinations of these format intended for use by teachers and students. (http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/appskill/ asleares).
At the seventh points, the teaching learning activity happened between the teacher and the students was quite interactive. Based on the writer‘s interview and observation, the communication happened while conducting the teaching learning process was quite appropriate. It could be seen from the teacher and the students who had done their each role well. The students became the active doer of the teaching learning process while the teacher acted as the facilitator, guide and motivator based on what method applied in teaching class.
Furthermore, the implementation of KTSP in SMP N II Bandung actually had the strengths and the weaknesses. The strengths are, (1) the students became more active and critical, (2) students had a chance to make up the score through a remedial test, (3) the use of language laboratory in supporting teaching English was optimal, (4) teacher had a good preparation before teaching the students.
Beside the strength, there were also some weaknesses of implementation of KTSP in Teaching English in SMP N II Bandung , that are (1) the time allotment limited in delivering materials still became the major problem for the teacher while implementing the KTSP, (2) some teacher who did not follow the KTSP workshop mostly had the lack of understanding to the curriculum being used, (3) the existence of KTSP did not fit with to the final examination, (4) the student‘s communicative skill in English lesson was still low because of the stressing of the students grammar understanding.
E. Summary and Recommendation
According to the research findings and the discussion in the previous chapter, which is about the implementation of KTSP in teaching English in the second grade of SMP N II Bandung, the writer comes to the conclusions of the research.
In general, the implementation of KTSP in teaching English at the second grade of SMP N II Bandung was well conducted. It could be seen from the teaching learning process which was viewed from the teaching and learning activity occurred, classroom interaction in English class, the teacher‘s role, student‘s role. Furthermore, the appropriateness the KTSP implementation in SMP N II Bandung could also be seen from the teaching material used and the system evaluation in the school used.
In general, the teachers had a good perception about KTSP in teaching English. Furthermore, someone‘s perception was influenced by his or her behavior. Related to this case, the teacher had a good perception of KTSP, so that she could implement the concept well when she conducted the teaching learning process. It also directly influenced the classroom interaction, which occurred between the teacher and the students in class, the method used in teaching, and the teaching material used etc.
During teaching-learning activities, the teacher had done her role as well as she could. The teacher tried to develop to the curriculum especially in composing syllabus and lesson plan. The teacher‘s role was as a motivator. She tried to create conducive climate in teaching learning activities so that the students could participate more actively in teaching learning process, for example asking the students more active in asking and answering the teachers‘ questions. Besides that, the teacher also became a motivator and a facilitator. It could be seen from the class discussions that the teacher corrected the student‘s performances and gave the correct explanation if there was misunderstanding or misconception related to the material being taught in teaching learning activity. Those teacher‘s roles were based on the methods applied in the class, those were selected based on the material being taught and the student‘s acquisition. It was appropriate with the Mulyasa opinions that the use of various methods and approaches in teaching was useful for creating the conducive atmosphere and joyful learning.
Based on the interview and the observation taken, the students became the subject of teaching learning process. It could be seen that they actively involved in asking and answering teacher‘s questions, reading aloud, working in pairs, doing the independent assignment from the teacher etc. Although there were some passive students. Nevertheless, the teacher also motivated them to be more active, for example by asking and giving the students who lack of English fluency the extra treatment for them, etc.
Furthermore, the evaluation system used in the school was appropriate with the concept of KTSP. The teacher took the weekly test, the mid-term test, final test which also covered the cognitive aspects of evaluation. While the affective and psychomotor aspects of evaluation were seen from the students‘ enthusiasm and the students‘ right attitude in joining English class, for example in the students‘ activeness when they answered the teacher‘s questions and it could be seen from the student‘s presence.
During delivering the material, the teacher took the teaching materials from many sources of learning. It could be printed materials and the recorded materials. While in printed materials, the teacher used some books namely the guided book from BSE entitled -Let‘s Talk‘, LKS and other references which were chosen based on the teachers‘ enrichment sources. Besides that, the teacher also completed the teaching material using relevant cassette and CD which were played in language laboratory.
From the explanation above, there were some strengths and the weaknesses of implementing KTSP in teaching English in SMP N II Bandung. The strengths are, (1) students became more active and critical, (2) the students had chance to make up the score, (3) the use of language laboratory in supporting teaching English was optimal, (4) the teacher had a good preparation before teaching the students.
Based on the interview and the observation taken, there were also some weaknesses of implementation of KTSP in Teaching English in SMP N II Bandung, namely (1) the time allotment limited in delivering material which became the major problem for the teacher when implementing the KTSP, (2) some teachers who had not yet the chances to follow the KTSP workshop had lack understanding to the curriculum being used (3) the existence of KTSP did not fit with to the final examination (4) the student‘s communicative skill in English lesson was still low because of the stressing on the students grammar understanding.
After analyzing the data and making conclusions, the writer has some suggestions to the school, the students and the teacher in order that the implementation of KTSP in teaching English in SMP N II Bandung keeps on betterment. Those suggestions can be described as follows:
a. To the school
1). The school should accommodate the teachers‘ need in understanding the curriculum being used, that is KTSP. The school should provide more workshops and seminars to improve teachers‘ understanding related to the curriculum applied.
2). The school should encourage teachers‘ improvement for better teaching. They are required to be more active to talk, to give arguments, opinion in order to make improvement to the school. This improvement can be accommodated when the teacher took meeting weekly in order to evaluate whether teaching learning process is well conducted or when they share all teaching problems faced.
b. To the teacher
1). The teacher should enrich herself or himself with various types of learning sources. It may also include the insertion of Bandung‘s culture such as the legend of Tangkuban Perahu, the legend of Prabu Siliwangi, etc; therefore this enrichment is appropriate with the KTSP concept, which needs to insert the region culture and the student‘s acquisition.
2). The teacher should improve their creativity in delivering material using various methods and approaches especially in teaching English in order to motivate the students to be actively involved in teaching learning process.
c. To the students
1). Students should be more active in teaching learning process. In this case, the students as the subject of teaching learning activities should realize that learning English covers either communicative skills or grammar mastery. Those components should be propositionally learnt by the students.
2). The students should not be afraid in trying to communicate in English, which results in trial and error. Those activities are quite common during learning process.
3). The students should realize that learning English is enjoyable and fun. They also should consider the importance of learning English in facing the global era.
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