FINAL ASSIGNMENT OF CMD 2011 Wednesday, Aug 10 2011 

PRODI PEND. BAHASA INGGRIS

PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UHAMKA

 

FINAL ASSIGNMENT OF  CURRICULUM & MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT 2011

 

 

TEACHING MATERIALS  AND EVALUATION SYSTEM USED IN THE SCHOOL-BASED CURRICULUM (KTSP) FOR THE TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

AT SMPN II BANDUNG

 

By: Hariani

NIM: 0908066012


Lecture:

Hartoyo, M.A.,Ph.D

 

 

A.     Introduction

1.      Backgroun of Study

Today, education is doing a basic innovation related to the school curriculum. The innovation demands the change of the way of thinking, the learning method, and the evaluation technique. Related to this problem, The National Education Department has changed the previous curriculum- Competence Level Based Curriculum (C LBC) – with the new one called Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) and in English language it is called by School Level Based Curriculum (SLBC). Here, curriculum is a set of plans and rules about goals, contents, and learning materials as well as the way of using it as guidance for implementation of learning activities that is aimed at a specific goal National Education Standardized Institution (BSNP, 2006). SLBC is an operational curriculum which is prepared and implemented in each educational unit. SLBC consists of the target education of level based education, structure and contents of curriculum in educational unit level, educational calendar and syllabus.

Regarding that the correlation between education and curriculum is closely related, it seems that there is coordination between the education goals and the curriculum content. It means that curriculum compounds of many components such as the goal, the indicator, method and evaluation (Burhan Nurgiantoro: 1999). Considering that, the nature of curriculum consists of values and aspirations of educations, both of them become the content and tools in achieving certain education goals. Therefore, applying the education process may refer to the process of realizing and implementing those values and ideas into concrete activity, in this case, the evaluation of how such kind of curriculum is implemented by some educational personnel‘s including the teachers, thestakeholder and other personnel of the school in doing learning process in classroom.

Moreover, since the reformation changes many aspects of human life including education system, it also affects the changes of curriculum used in the school system. The central government as the highest control holder gives the education unit an authority to manage the school including the curriculum used. In this case, the school may have the authority to derive the competency standard licensed by the central government. Thus, the teachers may adopt some derivational materials based on the specification, condition and potency of the regency need called as the School Based Curriculum Development, which is also popular as KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan).

Based on the Education Regulation number 20 year 2003 about national Education system 36 (1) and (2) become the curriculum references consisting of the plan and stages that are aimed to establish national education goals. KTSP is defined as an operational curriculum that is arranged and done by the school and adapted to the characteristics, conditions and potency of regency including the religion and pupils needs which stated as follows:

Moreover, based on the regulation number 19 year 2005 about Education National Standard section four pasal 17, which regulate about Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan.

In line with that definition, the depth of KTSP content spells out into some standards, which regulate about the implementation of content standard, graduates competency standard and the derivational implementation of those references in conducting the teaching learning process.

The content standard as the Based on regulation number 19 year 2005 pasal 5, which regulate about the content standard covering the scopes of material of the subject matter and the minimum grades competency that should be possessed by the students.

In addition, the implementation of KTSP is escorted with the earlier curriculum in 2004 that is popularly called Competency Based Curriculum (CBC). Both of KTSP and CBC emphasizes on some competences which should be possessed by the student based on licensed by the central government. In other side, KTSP, which had released in 2006, is the derivational curriculum development of CBC. In implementing KTSP, the teachers could be unhampered to improve, to be more creative and practical in learning process which is suited with the characteristics of school, the region and the pupils.

Furthermore, although good planning about curriculum is important– that is KTSP, the evaluation of the curriculum implemented is also necessary. The success of education policy is based on the measurement of how well the curriculum implemented. The planning policy is functional; therefore, the realization of the planning policy has to deal with the application of this. Both of them are important to measure weather the implementation of the curriculum is well conducted or not since the implementation of KTSP does not only to replace the curriculum used but also another influential factor affecting the teaching learning process. It means that the implementation of KTSP changes not only the, teacher‘s methods and strategies in learning process but also the teacher‘s paradigm philosophy underlying the concept, the teacher‘s perception, the students, the school and other personnel‘s related to education system etc.

Based on the description above, the researcher is interested to study about the implementation of KTSP in teaching English in SMPN II Bandung especially in the teaching material dan the evaluation system used in this school. The writer’s reason in choosing SMP N II Bandung is because SMP N II Bandung has been applying KTSP (Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan) or the School Level Based Curriculum. The school emphasizes speaking skill as the way of entering language to the students. This is aimed at developing oral skill of the students in learning English.

2.      Problem Statement

In this study, it is better to identify the problems covering the study. To make the study clearer the writer identifies the problems as follows:

a.       How well is the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the teaching materials

b.       How well is the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the evaluation system used in the school?

 

3.      The Objective of the Study

This study aims at finding the answer to the questions stated in the problem statements. Thus, the objectives of the study are:

a.       To describe the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the teaching materials?, and (b) the evaluation system used in the school?

b.       To describe the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the evaluation system used in the school.

B.     Review of Related Literature

1.      Curriculum

a.      The Definition of Curriculum

There are many point of views related to the definition of curriculum. A definition from the Education Regulation number 20 year 2003 about National Educational System becomes the underlying concept of curriculum. It stated that curriculum is a set of plan and regulation dealing with the goals, content, materials and ways used as direction of teaching activities process to reach the education goals including national education goals.

Furthermore, Lawrence Stenhouse (1985), he defined that curriculum is a systematic collection of accumulated knowledge and experience from multitude of sources that guides classroom practice. Moreover, he argued that a curriculum should consist of three major parts related to some components namely planning, empirical study and justification. In line with that definition, the process model developed has three major things related to the curriculum development in general. It is generated from the classroom situation during teaching and learning process. In the first place, it matches with the central place in the curriculum process to an analysis about what is actually happened in classroom during teaching and learning process, secondly, teacher acknowledge to their position as a central role in curriculum development process. Finally, curriculum becomes the major way to reflect the teacher‘s currents performance in teaching class through critical analysis and reflection.

In line with the opinion above, according to Nunan in Richard (1987), a curriculum definition can be seen from some views namely, as a product, as a planning, and as a process. The first side views curriculum as product or set items to be taught. At the second views, curriculum is seen as the sequence of planning materials for teaching students. The last side views that curriculum as a process for deriving materials. Furthermore, Douglass in Oemar Hamalik (2001: p. 17) stated that;

”Curriculum is broad and varied as the child‘s school environment. Broadly conceived, curriculum embraces not only on the subject matter but also various aspects of the physical and social environment consisting of school facilities, subject matter, other children and teacher from interaction or the child with these elements learning results”.

In addition, as quoted in Oliva (1992), Hollis L. Caswell and Doak S. Campbell viewed curriculum as all the experiences children posses under the teacher‘s guidance. In line with that opinion, J.Galen Saylor, William M, Alexander and Arthur Lewis defined that curriculum is a plan for providing sets of learning opportunities for students to be educated.

b.      Approach in Curriculum Development

Approaches in curriculum development mean many things. One of them is curriculum construction or the curriculum improvement. It is related to the arrangement of all curriculum dimensions, the structure of subject matter, scopes, sequences, and macro curriculum. According to Syaodih in Mulyasa (2000), there are some approaches in developing curriculum namely curriculum development approach based on the organizational system and curriculum development approach based on target focus which is also consisted of the curriculum development approach based on the competency approach.

1).    Curriculum Development Approach Based on the Organizational System

Based on the organizational system, this approach concern more on the legitimacy of central rule. There is one kind of regulation rules in the nations. Based on this approach, it can be seen as the centralistic regulation up to the democratic regulation in decentralist regulation. In centralization curriculum, it is just one curriculum in a kind of educational level in Indonesia. It is national curriculum, various, developed by the central government, the teachers just derivate annually planning and the unit of teaching etc.

In contrast, the decentralization curriculum is the changing of the authority from the central government and providing more autonomy that is coupled with accountability to institutions. In the broader context, national level reflections were engaged for developing a new vision of education, as part of the reformations in Indonesia, which emphasizes on the implementation of the principles of democracy, autonomy, decentralization, and public accountability.

2).    Curriculum Development Approach Based on Target Focus.

In this approach, curriculum development is concerned on some aspects that are:

a)      Knowledge mastery approach; it is a model of curriculum development which focuses on the content or materials in the form of knowledge, comprehension, application and analysis, synthesis of evaluation that are taken from science fields.

b)      Standard skill approach; it focuses on the mastering of student‘s potential skill in harmony with their developments stages.

c)      Personal building approach; it focuses on the development or the establishment of personal aspects totally, knowledge, skill, value or attitude.

d)      Problem solving approach; the curriculum development focuses on the development of solving urgent problems in society.

e)      Competency mastery approach is a model of curriculum, which focuses on certain comprehension, skill or competency in the school related to jobs that exist in society.

3).    Competency Approach

It is an approach, which focuses on the mastery of certain competency based on the student‘s development stages. Each of stages has some potency but those very influences the environment and the chance they get.

In line with the explanation above, Zainudin in his book entitled “Reformasi Pendidikan”, he argued that curriculum which is referred to the students for facing the global need is concerned to competency. This approach emphasizes on the acquiring of the student‘s competency based on the student‘s phases development. Curriculum development model is concerned on the student‘s life skill, capability and competency for overcoming social problem in real daily life.

In unit teaching, according to constructivism view, the students are educated to think creatively on their own knowledge. According to Martinis Yamin (2005) in “Paradigma Pendidikan Konstruktivistik”, the implication of this covers.

a)      students form their own knowledge

b)      students create the meaning nuance

c)      students search the information

d)      students have critical attitude

2.      Competency Based Curriculum

a.      Definition of Competency

According to Mc.Ashan (1981: 45), a competency is knowledge, skills and abilities or capabilities that one‘s achieved, which becomes part of his or her being to the extent he or she can satisfactory, perform particular cognitive, affective and psychomotor behavior. Moreover, competency is basic ability that student do in the stages of knowledge, skills and attitude (http:www.org/org/erieel/digest/Rodgers.htm)

Based on Association K.U. Leuven, a competency is an integration of knowledge, skills and behavior that makes the possibility to do work effectively. Furthermore, Robert A. Roe (2001) stated a definition of competency:

Competency is defined as the ability to adequately perform a task, duty or role. Competency integrates knowledge, skills, personal values and attitudes. Competency builds on knowledge and skills and is acquired through work experience and learning by doing”.

In addition, Hall and Jones (1976: 29) argued that competency is comprehensive performance descriptions of a certain ability, which is consisted of combination between knowledge and competency that can be observed and measured (http://www.ditpertais.net/swara/warta17-03.asp).

In short, a competency is a set of one‘s ability consisting of knowledge, skills and abilities, personal values and attitudes or capabilities achieved to do a task, duty or role in order to perform particular cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain.

b.      Definition of Competency Based Curriculum

Competency Based Curriculum is a set of planning and rules about competency and learning outcomes that should be achieved by the students, evaluation system, learning activity and the sources of education capacity in curriculum development. This curriculum concerns more on the development of competency that should be possessed by the students.

In the line with that opinion, Mulyasa (2006) argued the definition of Competency Based Curriculum is:

“KBK dapat diartikan sebagai suatu konsep yang menekankan pada pengembangan kemampuan melakukan (kompetensi) tugas-tugas dengan standar performasi tertentu sehingga hasilnya dapat dirasakan oleh peserta didik berupa penguasaan terhadap seperangkat kompetensi tertentu”.

Based on that definition, the concept of Competency Based Curriculum emphasizes on the student‘s development ability to do the tasks based on the standard of its certain performance; therefore, in mastering that competency, the students acknowledge the result of certain competency.

In short, Competency Based Curriculum is a set of planning and rules about competency and learning outcomes that should be achieve by the students, the evaluation system, learning activity and the sources of educational capacity consisting of basic knowledge, skill, attitudes and values essential to competency.

c.       The Characteristics of Competency Based Curriculum

According to National Education System year 2002, there are some characteristics of Competency Based Curriculum. Those are:

1).    it is concerned on the students competency achievement either individually and classically.

2).    it is oriented on learning outcomes and diversity.

3).    it delivered to learning process using vary approaches and methods.

4).    the using of learning sources are not only teacher but also another learning sources, which fill the education substance.

5).    the evaluation emphasizes on the learning process and learning outcomes in order to acquire and achieve certain competency.

Furthermore, Mulyasa argued that there are six characteristics of the Competency Based Curriculum. Those are:

1).    Learning system using module

2).    Using all of learning sources

3).    Learning field experience

4).    Personal individual strategy

5).    Ease and joyful learning

6).    Complete learning.

d.      Principles in the Development of Competency Based Curriculum

According to National Education System year 2002, there are many principles in developing competence-based curriculum. There covers:

1).    Faith, value and the high attitude

2).    The reinforcing of the national integrity

3).    The balancing of ethics, logical, aesthetics, and kinesthetic value.

4).    The equality of getting chance

5).    Responsive to the development of science, knowledge, technology, and art.

6).    The development of life skills

7).    Long life learning

8).    Concerning on student‘s evaluation simultaneously, continuously, and comprehensively.

9).    Comprehensive and partnership approach

Based on the theory above, the development of Competency Based Curriculum is influenced by some aspects related to the learners‘ potential, needs, and interest; and environment.

3.      Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan

a.      Definition of KTSP

According to the education regulation number 20 year 2003 about National Education System, Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) is defined as an operational curriculum arranged and applied by each education unit. Furthermore, Badhowi (2004) stated that KTSP is as an operational curriculum that is arranged, applied by the school and adapted to the characteristics, the conditions and the potency of regency had by the region, school and the pupils. KTSP itself refers to the content standard and the graduate competency standard licensed by the Education National Standard Committee.

In line with that opinion, Mulyasa (2006) defined KTSP Curriculum as a derivational model curriculum in a school level, which is developed and suited to the characteristics of the school, the region, the social characteristics of the surrounding and the characteristics of its pupils.

In addition, Kunandar (2007:103) argued that KTSP is an operational curriculum that is arranged and applied by each educational unit that reflects on knowledge, skills and attitude so that it can increase the whole student‘s potency.

Based on the definition above, KTSP can be defined as the operational curriculum of the competency-based curriculum that is arranged and applied by each educational unit, which is suited and adapted to the characteristics of school, region and socials and pupils.

b.      Characteristics of KTSP

According to Ahiri (2007: 6), KTSP is the development model of the Competency Based Curriculum that has some characteristics:

1).    It is oriented to the learner outcomes and its effects.

2).    It is based on competency standard and basic competency that is spelt out into content standard.

3).    It is based on the graduation competency standard.

4).    It is concerned more on the diversity of curriculum model

5).    It develops the whole and overall competencies

6).    It applies complete learning.

Related to the explanation above, Mulyasa argued that there are at least four characteristics of KTSP, which can be identified, namely:

1).    The full authority of headmaster and educational unit

Each school has a board of trustee that is responsible for all aspects of school operation. In this case, the headmaster has some rules dealing with the school operation such as the full authority holder of the school and the decision maker of the school together with school committee. Related to the concept of KTSP, the headmaster should be able to adopt the student‘s need and the local community need based on the characteristics and cultural environment background.

2).    Parents and society have more influences

Parents and society may also participate in making school decision. Through the school council, parents and society are able to supervise and help the school in managing the school program. The participation can be taken directly and indirectly in school program and learning process.

3).    The democratic and professional leadership

According to Sutisna (1993), the leadership can be defined as a process of affecting individual or group activity in order to achieve the intended goal in certain condition. In a school, the headmaster has the significant role in determining the school policy.

Dealing with the concept of KTSP, the existence of the headmaster as the person elected by the school committee and some school personnel‘s hold the responsibility for creating conducive atmosphere, which is suited to teaching learning process dealing with school decision. The headmaster has the high authority for making school decisions in line with the school committee agreement.

4).    Transparent Teamwork

A school system consists of some intercorelated components namely the students, the teachers, parents, and some other school personnel. Those all components work together in order to realize the intended goal. It means that those work need good coordination. In addition, based on Handayaningrat (1992) in Mulyasa, there are some characteristics of  “coordination”, that are:

a)      The responsibility of coordination is holding on the leader.

b)      Coordination deals with the cooperation

c)      Coordination is continuous process

d)      The effort manage regularly and properly

e)      The integrity of activity is done as the core of coordination

f)        The aim of coordination is the common purpose.

Based on those characteristics, all school components are demanded to conduct and manage the coordination properly in order to achieve the certain purpose. Related to the KTSP concept, the intended goals have to deal with the mission and visions of the school.

c.       Principles in the Development of KTSP

According to the education regulation number 20 year 2003, there are some operational references in arranging KTSP:

Focused on learners‘ potential, development, needs, and interest; and their environment.

1).    Focused on learners‘ potential, development, needs, and interest; and their environment

Curriculum is developed based on the principle that learners have their own unique potential to develop their competency to become religiously devoted, bright, competitive, and responsible citizens. It is, therefore, the development of this potential is done based on the learners potentials and develomental needs. The learners are supposed to be the central attention of learning activities (learners oriented curriculum).

2).    Varied and integrated

Curriculum is developed by keeping in mind the diversity of learners characteristic, geography condition, level and type of education, as well as appreciating differences in religion, ethnics, culture, tradition, socio-economics status, and gender. Curriculum must contain required subjects, local content, and integrated self development and is developed in a meaningful and right intersubjects integration.

3).    Responsive to the development of science, knowledge, technology, and art

Curriculum is developed based on awareness that science, knowledge, technology, and art developing dynamically. Therefore, the curriculum spirit and content are required to provide learners with learning experience that enable them to keep up with and utilize science, knowledge, technology, and art development.

4).    Relevant with the need of life

Curriculum is developed by involving the stakeholders to ensure its relevance to the needs of life, which include social life, business, and employment. It is, therefore, educational institutions have to include the development of personal, thinking, social, academic, and vocational skills.

5).    Comprehensive and continued

Curriculum content includes the whole dimensions of competencies and subjects that are planned and presented continuously through all educational level. It means, therefore, that the same subject may be presented at different level, but with diverse depth and scope.

6).    Life long learning

Curriculum is directed toward the process of learners‘ development, acculturation, and empowerment in the frame of lifelong learning. The curriculum reflects the interrelation of formal, non-formal, and informal education by paying attention to the ever-changing environment condition and demand.

7).    Balancing national and regional interests.

Curriculum is developed by paying attention to the national and regional interest in order to develop a well-balanced life in community, nation, and state. National and regional interests must be kept in balance with the motto of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia: unity through diversity.

In line with that opinion, Ahiri (2007:6) stated that KTSP is an operational curriculum arranged and done by the educational units that consists of the goals at educational unit level, the structure and content of KTSP, education calendar and syllabuses.

In harmony with this idea, Mulyasa (2006) argued that there are six components of KTSP namely:

1).    Vision and mission of school

A vision is a set of representative of belief as a view of customers, staff, stakeholders, and the manager. While mission is the step which is arranged in order to gain the vision. Related to education system, each school must have those components as the representation of school belief as the references in conducting school operations. All school programs conducted should be matched to those components.

2).    Educational goal of school

As a system, a school works together in achieving the education goal of the school. Each school also needs to write its own goals, objectives, and target as clear as possible for long and short period. It makes the school program conducted clearer, more understandable, and measurable.

Dealing with this, school vision and mission usually spell out into the school education goal. All school programs taken should refer to this in order to achieve the intended school goal.

3).    Educational calendar

The arrangement of education calendar in one period is used to know the plotting of schedule in conducting teaching learning process. It can be used as a reference to determine the efficiency, affectivity of the student‘s rights of the school program. The content of education calendar is time allotment in conducting the teaching learning process. It consisted of time allotment to face learning for structured task, unstructured independent activity and the time of holiday etc. Moreover, it can be used as reference for estimation of some competencies, which should be possessed by the students during the learning activity, the organization of materials, which should be acquired by the students; the evaluation should be taken etc.

4).    Syllabuses

In teaching process, it is known the term ―syllabuses‖. According to Widowson (1991), a syllabus is an idealized schematic construct, which serves as reference for teaching. The specification of syllabuses is concerned with both the selection and the ordering of what is to be taught (Halliday: 1965). Dealing with the content of syllabuses, that consist of standard competency, basic competency, materials, indicators, assessment, time allotment, and resources of teaching developed by each school (Mulyasa: 2006).

In short, a syllabus can be interpreted as a set of teaching plan as the reference of particular subject matter conducted that consist of competency standard, basic competency, materials, indicators, assessment, time allotment, and some other of teaching developed by each school.

5).    Lesson Plan

Generally, a lesson plan is a set of plan describing the procedure and learning management in conducting the learning process. The components of lesson plan are competency standard, basic competency, instructional objectives, teaching materials, methods, the steps of learning conducted, the sources of learning and the technique of evaluation.

6).    Structure of Subject matter curriculum

According to the Decree of National Education Minister number 22 year 2006, it regulates about content standard. It can be defined as the boundaries of minimum materials and minimum grades competency, which should be possessed by the students in order to achieve minimum graduation competency standard.

Furthermore, some components of the content standard are:

1).    Subject Cluster and Scope

The curriculum foundation is the collection of five subject matters, that are:

a)      Religion and noble character;

This subject is intended to develop learners to become religiously devoted individuals who posses noble character. The noble characters consist of ethics, good conduct in life, or morality as the realization of religious education.

b)      Citizenship and personality

This subject is intended to develop the learners‘ awareness and knowledge with regard to their status, rights, and obligations in community, state, and nation; as well as to improve their quality as human being. The awareness and knowledge include nationality, spirit and patriotism in defending their nation, appreciation of human rights, nation diversity, environment conservation, gender equality, democracy, social responsibility, as well as the promotion of behaviors against corruption, collusion, and nepotism.

c)      science and technology

Science and technology at elementary school is intended to introduce, react, and appreciate science and technology, as well as to instill habits of critical, creative, and independent scientific thinking and behavior. Science and technology at junior high school is intended to develop basic competency in knowledge and science as well as to enhance the learners‘ habit of scientific thinking critically, creatively, and independently.

d)      Aesthetics

This subject cluster is intended to develop learners‘ sensitivity as well as ability to express and appreciate beauty and harmony. The ability to appreciate and express beauty and harmony consists of appreciation and expression, both in individual life that enable the learners to enjoy and be grateful of life and in community that enable them to create togetherness and harmony.

e)      Physical, sport, and health

This subject cluster at junior high school is intended to enhance the learners‘ physical potential as well as to strengthen the habits of sportive and healthy life.

2).    Curriculum Structure of Junior High School

The arrangement of subject matter for students:

a)      The depth of curriculum contents spells out into some competencies that should be possessed by the students with the burden of study, which is stated on curriculum structure.

b)      It is a kind of patterns and structure of subject matter that should be taken up by the students in learning process.

c)      It acquires the competency, which is consisted of competency standard and basic competency that are expanded based on graduate competency standard.

d)      The content of local subject matter and student self-development are integrated with the school curriculum structure.

3).    The content of study

The content of study can be interpreted as the time plotting needed to follow the learning interactions. It consists of some parts that are:

a)      time allotment

b)      structured assignment

c)      unstructured- independent assignment

4).    Education calendar

Education calendar is the plotting of teaching learning time allotments for students in a period. It covers the decision of the beginning of year academics, effective learning time and the holiday for the students.

5).    Scholl based management

The curriculum used in the school is the curriculum which derived from the KTSP that is arranged and applied by each educational unit which is suited and developed to the characteristics of school, region, pupils and socials.

In addition, based on the regulation rule number 23 year 2006, graduates competency standard is the qualification of the students which covers the students knowledge, attitude and skills. Moreover, the graduate competency standards have some functions that are:

a)      It is used for the standard evaluation in determining student‘s graduation of education unit level.

b)      In junior high school level, it is used to put the basic intelligence, knowledge, noble character, good attitude and skill for independent supplies and to follow the next education stages.

d.      The Competency Standard of English Subject Matter

Competency Standard of English as a subject matter is a potency of measurement in competency minimum, which should be achieved by students after following instruction. The standards of English Subject matter for junior high school students are:

1).    Listening; Students are able to understand the meaning of short script and in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context.

2).    Speaking; Students are able to express the meaning of short script and in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal conversation in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text, simply conversation and simply monologue in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context.

3).    Reading; Students are able to get meaning nuance in the written text like short functional text, text that is in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context.

4).    Writing; Students are able to express the meaning nuance in the form of written text like short functional text that is in the form of descriptive, narrative and recount in daily life context

 

4.      Teaching Material

a.          The Definition of Teaching Materials

Teaching materials can also define as the sources of learning. According to Mulyasa (2006), the sources of learning means anything that can give the students information, knowledge, experience and skills in teaching learning process.

Furthermore, learning resources can be defined as the information that is presented and stored in a variety of media and formats, which assists the students learning as defined by provincial or local curricula. This includes but it is not limited to, materials in print, video, and software formats, as well as combinations of these formats intended for use by teachers and students (http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/appskill/ asleares.htm 5 Agustust, 2011).

In short, teaching materials are anything used by the teachers in learning process arranged systematically in order to give the students information during instructions covering to written materials and non-written materials.

b.      The Kinds of Teaching Materials

According to Mulyasa (2006), there are some kinds of teaching materials. Those are:

1).    Human being; it is the persons delivering the massage directly in learning process. It can be the teachers, the counselors; the administrators who delivered the massage by design.

2).    Instructional media; it can be anything contained of education substance that assists learning process. Mostly, the teachers use printed materials such as book, which is licensed by central government, handout, module, brochure, leaflet, wall-chart etc. Besides completing the materials by printed materials, the teachers can use another instructional media by using the educational film, map, etc.

3).    Environments; it is related to the setting for learning process happened. It can be classroom, library, laboratories, museums, etc.

4).    Tools and devices; it is the sources of learning for production or applying another tool for instance: camera for photograph, tape recorder, LCD projectors, television, radio, etc.

5).    Activity; it is the source of learning that consists of the combination of some teaching methods in learning process. It covers events or facts that happened.

c.       The Role of Teaching Materials

The role of instructional materials within an individualized instruction system might include the following specifications that are:

1).    Materials will allow learners to progress at their own rates of learning.

2).    Materials will allow for different styles of learning.

3).    Materials will provide opportunities for independent study and use.

4).    Materials will provide opportunities for self- evaluation and progress in learning.

Furthermore, Richard and Rogers (2001; 30) state that a particular design for an instructional system may imply a particular set of roles for materials in supporting the syllabuses, the teachers and the learners. They give example of role of instructional materials within a functional or communicative methodology;

1).    Materials will focus on the communicative abilities of interpretation, expression and negotiation.

2).    Materials will focus on understandable, relevant and interesting exchanges of information, rather than on the presentation of grammatical form.

3).    Materials will involve different kind of text

5.      The Evaluation System Used in the School

a.      The Definition of Evaluation

The term ―evaluation‖ in education system refers to the measurement of the student‘s ability based on the standard licensed. It is necessary to know the student‘s achievement so that the evaluation is held.

Oemar Hamalik (1995: 159) in Paradigma Pendidikan kontruktivistik, argued that evaluation is all measurement activities (including the process of gathering data and information), management, interpretation, and estimation in order to make decisions in students learning outcomes whether it had achieved the learning outcomes or not.

In addition, evaluation also can be defined as the process of giving and determining the mark or value to certain object based on certain criteria (Sudjana, 1990:3). In this case, the point of evaluation is the estimation of student‘s learning outcomes based on the certain measurement. Moreover, Djemari Mardapi (1999: 8) argued that the evaluation is an activity for interpreting and describing the result of measurement.

In short, the evaluation is a systematic process of gathering data and information quantitatively and qualitatively for analyzing and interpreting students learning outcomes in order to make meaningful decisions.

b.      Aspects of Evaluation

In some extent, the term evaluation and measurement are interchangeable. According to Benyamin S Bloom as quoted by Martinis Yamin (2008), measuring students learning outcomes covers three domains of learning that are.

1)      Cognitive Domain

The major points of this aspect are the ability of individual thinking covering the domain of intelligence. It covers the process of memorizing, understanding, applying, analyzing evaluation and creation.

2)      Affective Domain

It involves the domain of feeling, emotional, system values, and attitude that is expressed in accepting or refusing something. The process covers some stages namely receiving, responding, appreciating, organization, characterization.

3)      Psychomotor Domain

This domain is related to kinesthetic skills covering body movement and action. This aspect needs the coordination between muscle and neuron. This domain is consisted of gross body movement, coordination movement, non-verbal movement and speech behavior.

In brief, in interpreting the student‘s learning outcomes, it involves the process of measuring competency whether the goal has been achieved or not (after instruction) that covers three domains of learning namely cognitive, affective and psychomotor.

c.       Types of Evaluation

According to Mulyasa in Martinis Yamin, there are many ways of evaluations in implementing the curriculum namely:

1).    Class-Based evaluation

It is the evaluation, which is done by the teachers during learning process. This involves the collection of information and the students learning outcomes in order to determine the grades of achievement and mastering certain competencies based on standard competency and some indicators, which is stated in curriculum.

2).    Basic-competence test

It is for measuring student‘s competency especially in reading, writing and accounting

3).    School-based evaluation

It is used for describing the whole student‘s competency and activity during instruction. It is usually done at the end of school grade.

4).    Benchmarking

It is a kind of work evaluation and process performance in order to determine the grades of superiority and the success of learning outcomes. It is done at the end of educational unit. This evaluation is used for giving students ranking not for giving students mark.

5).    Program evaluation

It is used for measuring the implementation of the learning program in the school whether it is achieved well or not. According to Scriven in Tayibnapis, 2000:36). There are some differences between formative evaluation and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is usually done during the program taken. It is used for giving the valuable information for the teachers in order to correct the program whether it runs well or not. While in summative evaluation, it is done in the end of the instructions. It is used to give potential information for consumer related to the benefit of the program.

6).    Porto folio assessment

Porto folios mean the collective of student‘s assignment or worksheet intentionally and integrated that is selected based on the guidelines licensed. Moreover, porto folios assessment can also be regarded as the class based evaluation of collective student‘s assessment, which is arranged systematically and organizationally during learning at certain period by the teachers.

Based on the theory above, the evaluation is used for measuring the student‘s achievement and learning outcomes. The uses of kind of evaluation depend on the instructional objectives stated by the teachers.

C.     Analysis

This section answers the problem statements (a) how well is the implementation of KTSP in Teaching English at the second year of SMP N II Bandung in the academic year 2010/ 2011 which is viewed from the teaching materials and  the evaluation system used in the school

 

1.      Teaching Materials

According to KTSP, the materials of teaching English in Junior High School should fulfill some basic competencies for each of the language skills. Dealing with this, according to Pedoman Khusus Pengembangan Silabus dan Penilaian Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris Kurikulum 2006 Direktorat Jendral Pendidikan Menengah Pertama, Departemen Pendidikan Nasional 2003, there are four skills that should be possessed by the second grade students of Junior High School at the second semester, namely.

a.       listening. Students should be able to understand the meaning of short script in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context,

b.      speaking. Students should be able to express the meaning of short script in the form of simple transactional and interpersonal conversation in order to interact with surrounding, short functional text, simple conversation and simple monologue in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context,

c.       reading. Students should be able to get the meaning intended in the written text like short functional text, text that is in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context, and

d.      writing. Students should be able to express the meaning nuance in the form of written text like short functional text, text that is in the form of narrative and recount in daily life context.

Dealing with the materials used in teaching English, the teacher used the book published by BSE entitled-Let‘s Talk‖. The book consisted of eight chapters completed by the language function and language structure. Besides that, the teacher also used Lembar Kerja Siswa (LKS) as the complementary materials in teaching English published by Musyawarah Guru Mata Pelajaran (MGMP). It consisted of four units that also cover four English integrated skills namely, listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Related to the content of LKS, each chapter of the units contained the exercises of the integrated skills. In every unit, the book was also completed by the language functions and language structure.

UNIT 1 A Huge Snake (Narrative)

Language Function :      asking a help, asking permission, confirming and denying fact,

Language Structure :     verb + adjective, present perfect tense, modality.

UNIT 2 A Tour Botanical Garden (Recount)

Language Function:       asking opinion and giving opinion, responding to someone offering, expressing agreement and disagreement,

Language Structure : past continuous tense,

UNIT 3 Going Fishing (Recount)

Language Function :  expressing agreement and disagreement, expressing of starting, extending and ending conversation, expressing polite request and the responses, some expressing to make a call,

Language Structure :     simple past tense, direct and reported speech, passive voice

In the teaching and learning process, the teacher also completed the materials by using CD and cassette for listening which were relevant with the materials needed as teaching media. The teacher also used the language laboratory for playing the CD or cassette for listening or writing. It was appropriate with Mulyasa‘s statements (2006), which argued that there were some kinds of teaching materials including human being, instructional media, environments, tools and devices, activity. In addition, it was in line with what the concept of KTSP that used Contextual Teaching Learning by selecting the relevant method in teaching and materials, which is relevant with the daily life context.

2.      The Evaluation System of the School Used

In determining that evaluation is to measure students learning outcomes, the writer concerned with three aspects namely cognitive, psychomotor, and affective. The cognitive aspects presented knowledge in vocabulary and language structure, the psychomotor aspects deal with how to produce sounds, while the affective aspects include the right attitude showed by the students toward the lesson.

Evaluation in cognitive aspects was done by giving task for exercise, weekly test, mid-term test and final examination. Moreover, dealing with the curriculum used, the students who had not passed the minimal score, they should follow remedial tests. It was done in order to make up the students score. The minimal score for English Subject Matter in SMP N II Bandung was 6. 3. Meanwhile, the evaluation of psychomotor aspects and affective aspects were taken anytime during teaching and learning process. Those depended on the teachers‘ need. For affective aspect, the teacher also asked the students to perform their English skills in the classroom.

While for psychomotor aspects, the teacher gave the students value when they showed their attention and responsibility toward the lesson. The teacher also gave the additional marks if the students were active in asking and answering the teacher‘s questions or when the students showed their ability to speak English fluently. Their enthusiasm could also be seen through the student‘s presence while joining the English Lesson.

The teacher gave the additional mark if students participate actively in the class. For affective and psychomotor aspects, the students also gave the same impression.

 

D.    Discussion the Teaching Materials and Evaluation System Used in the School-Based Curriculum (KTSP) for the Teaching EFL at SMPN II Bandung

In research findings, some theories concerning with the implementation of KTSP had been discussed by the writer. Those theories were discussed as the result of data analysis. The writer tried to discuss the result of data analysis with the other relevant data in order to justify the research findings.

Firstly, the writer found that the teacher had a good perception about the curriculum used – that is KTSP. In the beginning of the semester, the teacher was required to make a lesson plan based on the available syllabuses. She made it from the first meeting up to the last meeting in a semester. The lesson plan made consisted of learning goals, the materials, teaching methods, learning sources and evaluation system. As stated in Mulyasa (2007), teaching preparation included the syllabuses and the lesson plan that covered some components such as learning goals, teaching materials, teaching methods, learning sources and evaluation system. This perception was appropriate with KTSP implementation that the teacher had to make the teaching preparation before conducting teaching learning process.

Related to the teaching and learning activities, the teacher had done well the step of the teaching. Before teaching, she sometimes reviewed the last material before continuing the next material. Before entering the new material, the teacher asked students questions related to the topic to make the students actively involved to the learning process. It meant that the teacher tried to connect the student‘s knowledge related to the material taught or building knowledge of field (BKOF). Then the teacher continued the next material as the next step of teaching including the modeling and the joint construction and the independent construction. According Depdiknas (2004: 7), in achieving communicative competence, the teacher was suggested to follow some steps of teaching namely the building of field (BKOF), modeling, joint construction and independent construction. Although she did not state those steps explicitly.

Secondly, dealing with the teacher‘s role in learning process, the activities done by the teacher were appropriate with what was stated in KTSP. It could be seen from the observation and the teacher‘s interview that a teacher was a motivator, a guide and a facilitator in which those depended on the method applied and the condition of the students. The teacher tried to grow the student‘s motivation in learning process by enforcing the students to do the work well. Then the teacher acted as a guide and a facilitator while they were conducting the learning process through the class discussion to make the students involved actively. The teacher took a position as the central or observer, to correct the class discussion if there were mistakes or some misconception of students‘ understanding when the teacher delivered the materials to the students.

As stated by Nana Syaodih sukmadinata (1999), the teacher‘s roles related to the curriculum used was that the teacher was a person who had responsibility to plan, implement and evaluate the curriculum for his classes and accommodates it for students needs and local needs. These steps included the process of translating, transforming and interpreting to the curriculum licensed by the government. As the teacher was the person who was the central part in teaching learning process, she or he was the person who was involved directly with the students.

Thirdly, dealing with the student‘s roles, based on the observation and the interview, the students knew about their roles as a subject of teaching learning process. The students had to transfer what they have learnt to their mind for accepting the new knowledge of information. The students involved actively in teaching learning process in class. It could be seen that the students‘ ability in answering the teacher‘s questions, their enthusiasm and their attention in joining the English class. For example, they also had no doubt to ask directly to the teacher or ask the other friends who had understood. On the other hand, they were being creative when they had to do the work well or the assignment given by the teacher. It could be concluded that the students were the subject of teaching learning process although some of them were passive in class. In general, however, most of the students in the class were active rather than passive.

Fourthly, the evaluation that had been done by the teacher was appropriate with the evaluation of KTSP. Generally, the teacher did two kinds of evaluation, namely, in written form and in the spoken form. Those also covered three domains of evaluation that are, cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In the written form that also covered the cognitive form, it could be taken from the daily test, mid tem test, final test, writing assignments, and students portfolios‘, etc. While in spoken form, it could be taken from storytelling in front of class, interviews in pairs etc. Beside cognitive aspects, the affective and psychomotor also could be seen from the students‘ performance in joining the teaching learning process including theirs enthusiasm, their activeness and their presence in joining the English class. It was harmony with the Mulyasa (2006) which stated that there were some evaluation dealing with the students‘ competence namely, class-based evaluation, basic-competence test, school-based evaluation, benchmarking, program evaluation, portfolio assessment, etc.

When the students could not pass the examination, they enforced to follow the remedial test in order to make up the score. Here, the nature of remedial test was giving a chance to students to make up their score who had not obtained 6.3, the KKM score approved by the school for English subject matter. The teacher was suggested to make remedial test. She just asked the students to rework the assignment that was used for daily test or mid term test or final examination test. While for the students who had passed the KKM, they should follow the enrichment.

Fifthly, the materials were varying based on the school and student needs. In delivering the materials, the teacher enriched herself by some materials taken from many sources in order to enrich her while teaching students. Here the teacher used LKS as the major guided book and completed by the guided book published by the BSE entitled-Let‘s Talk‘. The teachers also took another book in order to add and enrich the teaching materials for the students. The teacher also used the book from another publisher such as Erlangga and Yudistira, etc.

Beside the printed materials, the teacher also completed the teaching learning process by using the recorded material such as cassette and CD related to the relevant materials being taught. Dealing with this, the use of language laboratory was optimal enough. The teacher also became creative in selecting the materials. Those matched with the learning resources that are defined as the information that was presented and stored in a variety of media and formats, which assists students learning as defined by provincial or local curricula. This includes but is not limited to, materials in print, video, and software formats, as well as combinations of these format intended for use by teachers and students. (http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/appskill/ asleares).

At the seventh points, the teaching learning activity happened between the teacher and the students was quite interactive. Based on the writer‘s interview and observation, the communication happened while conducting the teaching learning process was quite appropriate. It could be seen from the teacher and the students who had done their each role well. The students became the active doer of the teaching learning process while the teacher acted as the facilitator, guide and motivator based on what method applied in teaching class.

Furthermore, the implementation of KTSP in SMP N II Bandung actually had the strengths and the weaknesses. The strengths are, (1) the students became more active and critical, (2) students had a chance to make up the score through a remedial test, (3) the use of language laboratory in supporting teaching English was optimal, (4) teacher had a good preparation before teaching the students.

Beside the strength, there were also some weaknesses of implementation of KTSP in Teaching English in SMP N II Bandung , that are (1) the time allotment limited in delivering materials still became the major problem for the teacher while implementing the KTSP, (2) some teacher who did not follow the KTSP workshop mostly had the lack of understanding to the curriculum being used, (3) the existence of KTSP did not fit with to the final examination, (4) the student‘s communicative skill in English lesson was still low because of the stressing of the students grammar understanding.

E.     Summary and Recommendation

1.      Summary

According to the research findings and the discussion in the previous chapter, which is about the implementation of KTSP in teaching English in the second grade of SMP N II Bandung, the writer comes to the conclusions of the research.

In general, the implementation of KTSP in teaching English at the second grade of SMP N II Bandung was well conducted. It could be seen from the teaching learning process which was viewed from the teaching and learning activity occurred, classroom interaction in English class, the teacher‘s role, student‘s role. Furthermore, the appropriateness the KTSP implementation in SMP N II Bandung could also be seen from the teaching material used and the system evaluation in the school used.

In general, the teachers had a good perception about KTSP in teaching English. Furthermore, someone‘s perception was influenced by his or her behavior. Related to this case, the teacher had a good perception of KTSP, so that she could implement the concept well when she conducted the teaching learning process. It also directly influenced the classroom interaction, which occurred between the teacher and the students in class, the method used in teaching, and the teaching material used etc.

During teaching-learning activities, the teacher had done her role as well as she could. The teacher tried to develop to the curriculum especially in composing syllabus and lesson plan. The teacher‘s role was as a motivator. She tried to create conducive climate in teaching learning activities so that the students could participate more actively in teaching learning process, for example asking the students more active in asking and answering the teachers‘ questions. Besides that, the teacher also became a motivator and a facilitator. It could be seen from the class discussions that the teacher corrected the student‘s performances and gave the correct explanation if there was misunderstanding or misconception related to the material being taught in teaching learning activity. Those teacher‘s roles were based on the methods applied in the class, those were selected based on the material being taught and the student‘s acquisition. It was appropriate with the Mulyasa opinions that the use of various methods and approaches in teaching was useful for creating the conducive atmosphere and joyful learning.

Based on the interview and the observation taken, the students became the subject of teaching learning process. It could be seen that they actively involved in asking and answering teacher‘s questions, reading aloud, working in pairs, doing the independent assignment from the teacher etc. Although there were some passive students. Nevertheless, the teacher also motivated them to be more active, for example by asking and giving the students who lack of English fluency the extra treatment for them, etc.

Furthermore, the evaluation system used in the school was appropriate with the concept of KTSP. The teacher took the weekly test, the mid-term test, final test which also covered the cognitive aspects of evaluation. While the affective and psychomotor aspects of evaluation were seen from the students‘ enthusiasm and the students‘ right attitude in joining English class, for example in the students‘ activeness when they answered the teacher‘s questions and it could be seen from the student‘s presence.

During delivering the material, the teacher took the teaching materials from many sources of learning. It could be printed materials and the recorded materials. While in printed materials, the teacher used some books namely the guided book from BSE entitled -Let‘s Talk‘, LKS and other references which were chosen based on the teachers‘ enrichment sources. Besides that, the teacher also completed the teaching material using relevant cassette and CD which were played in language laboratory.

From the explanation above, there were some strengths and the weaknesses of implementing KTSP in teaching English in SMP N II Bandung. The strengths are, (1) students became more active and critical, (2) the students had chance to make up the score, (3) the use of language laboratory in supporting teaching English was optimal, (4) the teacher had a good preparation before teaching the students.

Based on the interview and the observation taken, there were also some weaknesses of implementation of KTSP in Teaching English in SMP N II Bandung, namely (1) the time allotment limited in delivering material which became the major problem for the teacher when implementing the KTSP, (2) some teachers who had not yet the chances to follow the KTSP workshop had lack understanding to the curriculum being used (3) the existence of KTSP did not fit with to the final examination (4) the student‘s communicative skill in English lesson was still low because of the stressing on the students grammar understanding.

2.      Recommendation

After analyzing the data and making conclusions, the writer has some suggestions to the school, the students and the teacher in order that the implementation of KTSP in teaching English in SMP N II Bandung keeps on betterment. Those suggestions can be described as follows:

a.       To the school

1).    The school should accommodate the teachers‘ need in understanding the curriculum being used, that is KTSP. The school should provide more workshops and seminars to improve teachers‘ understanding related to the curriculum applied.

2).    The school should encourage teachers‘ improvement for better teaching. They are required to be more active to talk, to give arguments, opinion in order to make improvement to the school. This improvement can be accommodated when the teacher took meeting weekly in order to evaluate whether teaching learning process is well conducted or when they share all teaching problems faced.

b.      To the teacher

1).    The teacher should enrich herself or himself with various types of learning sources. It may also include the insertion of Bandung‘s culture such as the legend of Tangkuban Perahu, the legend of Prabu Siliwangi, etc; therefore this enrichment is appropriate with the KTSP concept, which needs to insert the region culture and the student‘s acquisition.

2).    The teacher should improve their creativity in delivering material using various methods and approaches especially in teaching English in order to motivate the students to be actively involved in teaching learning process.

c.       To the students

1).    Students should be more active in teaching learning process. In this case, the students as the subject of teaching learning activities should realize that learning English covers either communicative skills or grammar mastery. Those components should be propositionally learnt by the students.

2).    The students should not be afraid in trying to communicate in English, which results in trial and error. Those activities are quite common during learning process.

3).    The students should realize that learning English is enjoyable and fun. They also should consider the importance of learning English in facing the global era.

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

 

BSNP. (2006). Peraturan Mendiknas. Standar Isi dan Standar Kompetensi Lulusan 2006. Jakarta: Depdiknas.

Depdiknas2004. Pendekatan Konstektual. Jakarta: Depdiknas.

Djemari Mardapi. (1999). Pengukuran, penilaian dan evaluasi. Makalah disampaikan pada Penataran evaluasi pembelajaran matematika SLTP untuk guru inti matematika di MGMP SLTP tanggal 8 – 23 Nopember 1999 di PPPG Matematika Yogyakarta.

E. Mulyasa2006. Menjadi Kepala Sekolah Profesional, Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya.

E. Mulyasa2007. Standar Kompoetensi dan Sertifikasi guru. Bandung : PT. Rosdakarya.

E.Mulyasa2007. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan, Bandung : PT. Rosdakarya.

Kunandar. (2007). Guru Profesional Implementasi KTSP dan Sukses dalam sertifikasi Guru. Jakarta: PT. Raja Grafindo Persada.

Mc. Ashan, M. W. 1981. Competency Based Education and Behavioral Objective. Englewood Cliffs, Education Technologycal Publication Inc. New Jersey.

Mulyasa, E2006. Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan. Bandung: Remaja. Rosdakarya.

Nana Syaodih Sukmadinata1999. Pengembangan Kurikulum : Teori dan Praktek. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.

Oemar Hamalik2001. Proses Belajar Mengajar. Bandung : Bumi Aksara.

Oliva, Peter F. 1992. Developing the Curriculum: Third Edition. United States of America: HarperCollins Publishers.

Richard, J C &Rodgers, T. S. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Sutisna, Oteng. (1993). Administrasi Pendidikan Dasar Teoritis Untuk Praktek. Profesional. Bandung: Angkasa.

Tayibnapis, F.Y. (2000). Evaluasi Program. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta.

Yamin Martinis, (2005). Strategi Pembelajaran Berbasis Kompetensi. Jakarta: garuda Persada Press.

 

Pop Quiz: Curriculum and Material Development Wednesday, Jul 13 2011 

Master in English Language Education (TESOL)

Graduate School, UHAMKA University

              

Pop Quiz : Curriculum and Material Development.

By

Hariani / NIM : 098066012 Angkatan VI

Web Address : www.hariani25.wordpress.com

Lecturer: Hartoyo, MA., Ph.D

 

1. Analysis of the development/revision of curriculum that occurred in Indonesia.

Why should the curriculum change? Thus the question is often asked people, when responding to the curriculum changes that occurred in Indonesia. The answer is also very diverse, depending on the perception and understanding of each level. Throughout its history, in Indonesia has changed several times until there is an impression in public that “the ministers change, change curriculum”.

Curriculum change is basically required when the curriculum is applicable (current curriculum) has been considered ineffective and no longer relevant to the demands and changing times and any changes will contain certain risks and consequences.

Changes in the national curriculum is often invited a number of questions and debate, given its impact is very broad and contains a very large risk, especially if the change occurs suddenly and in a short time and with no clear basis.

Indonesian government, up to this point has been conducting curriculum adjustment for five times, which were conducted in 1965, 1974, 1984,  and 2004. The last curriculum adjustment, which was conducted in 2004, is known as Competence- Based Curriculum.  The Competence- Based Curriculum is then formulated and revised to be come School-Based Curriculum (SBC), known as Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP).

Competency-Based Curriculum is the plan and arrangement of competencies and learning outcomes to be achieved by students, assessment, teaching and learning activities, and empowerment of educational resources in the development of school curriculum. Competency-Based Curriculum-oriented: (1) outcomes and impacts expected to appear in self-learners through a series of meaningful learning experiences, and (2) diversity can be manifested in accordance with their needs (Puskur, 2002a).

The rationale for using the concept of competence in the curriculum is as follows.

(1)       Competence with regard to students’ ability to do things in different contexts.

(2)       Competence describes the experience of learning through which students to become competent.

(3)       Competent is the result of learning (learning outcomes), which explains the things that students do after going through the learning process.

(4)       The reliability of students’ ability to do something should be clearly defined and broad in a standard that can be achieved through measurable performance.

Substantially, the application KSTP is to implement existing regulations, namely the PP. 19/2005. However, the essence of the content and direction of the development achievement of learning are still characterized by packets of competence , namely:

(1)       Emphasis on the achievement of competencies students both individually and classical.

(2)       Oriented to learning outcomes (learning outcomes) and diversity

(3)       Conducting of learning using various approaches and methods.

(4)       The sources of learning not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet the educational element.

(5)       Assessment emphasis on process and learning outcomes in an effort to achieve a mastery or competence.

We understand that since first enacted SBC/ KTSP that seemed suddenly, curriculum development activities at the school are very likely beginning with “compulsion” to comply with applicable regulations, so that the model developed may not fully describe the actual school needs and conditions. Therefore, to obtain an appropriate curriculum models, certainly needed improvements that are constantly under evaluation data, and eventually found a model curriculum more in line with the characteristics and the real conditions of school.

Therefore, in order to find a suitable model in the school curriculum, should be established at the school level curriculum development team tasked to manage the school curriculum in schools. Indeed today, in the schools had appointed a special officer in charge of the curriculum. But in general they tend to be busy with tasks that are just routine and technical nature only, such as scheduling classes, perform general tests or other routine activities. Effort to design, implement, and evaluate and develop a more innovative curriculum seems less attention.

With the Curriculum Development Team in the school, curriculum management activities may be much more focused, so in turn education in schools would be far more effective and efficient.

2. The current primary and secondary curriculum implemented in Indonesia

 

The current curriculum implemented in Indonesia is known as Kurikulum Tinngkat Satuan Pendidikan abbreviated by KTSP (School-Based Curriculum abbreviated by SBC).

School-based curriculum (SBC) is the general policy ordained by the Curriculum Development Council for schools’ consideration in the design of a quality curriculum conducive to effective pupil learning. Schools are encouraged to adapt the Central Curriculum to suit their unique contexts. When designing the school-based curriculum, schools are advised to observe closely the directions and requirements stipulated by the Curriculum Development Council in the official curriculum documents. Based on careful analysis of pupils’needs, abilities and interests, schools’ ecological contexts, leadership style of the principals and middle management, as well as the readiness of teachers, schools need to employ the most appropriate teaching, learning and assessment strategies and use diversified learning materials to integrate the teaching-learning-assessment cycle in their school-based curriculum. It is important to ensure that all pupils have equal opportunities participating in rich learning experiences that aim at promoting whole person development and life long learning.

The previous curriculum is Competence-Based Curriculum.

Competency-Based Curriculum is the plan and arrangement of competencies and learning outcomes to be achieved by students, assessment, teaching and learning activities, and empowerment of educational resources in the development of school curriculum. Competency-Based Curriculum-oriented: (1) outcomes and impacts expected to appear in self-learners through a series of meaningful learning experiences, and (2) diversity can be manifested in accordance with their needs (Puskur, 2002a).

Competency-based curriculum has the following characteristics:

  1. Emphasis on the achievement of competencies students both individually and classical.
  2. Outcome-based learning (learning outcomes) and diversity.
  3. Delivery of learning using various approaches and methods.
  4. Source of learning not only teachers, but also other learning resources that meet the educational element.

The differences of the current curriculum and previous curriculum.

There are fundamental differences compared to the previous competency-based curriculum (version 2002 and 2004), that the schools were given full authority to plan their education with reference to the standards that have been established, ranging from goal, the vision – mission, structure and curriculum, the burden of learning, education calendar, until the development of syllabus.

3.  Analysis of strengths and weaknesses of the current curriculum known as Scholl-Based Curriculum (SBC)/KTSP

A. Strengths of SBC

Each curriculum that implemented in Indonesia has the advantages of each depending on the situation and current conditions in which the curriculum is implemented. In my opinion, SBC has several advantages when compared with the previous curriculum, especially curriculum 2004 or CBC. SBC advantages include:

  1. Promote the establishment of school autonomy in education.

It is inevitable that one form of the failure of curriculum implementation in the past is the uniform curriculum throughout Indonesia, not looking at the real situation on the ground, and undervalue the potential of local excellence. Given this uniformity, in the city schools with schools in the suburbs or in rural areas. This also has implications for curriculum uniformity on the fact that some schools in agricultural areas with schools that the coastal areas, rural schools together with industry in the area of ​​tourism. Therefore, the curriculum has become less operational, so it does not give sufficient competence for students to develop themselves and distinctive strengths of the region. As the implications of this uniformity as a result, graduates do not have competitive power in the world of work and has implications also to rising unemployment. For that the presence of SBC is expected to give a concrete answer to quality education in Indonesia.
In the spirit of autonomy, the school together with school committees to jointly formulate a curriculum to suit the needs, situation and condition of the school environment. As something new, the school may have difficulty in preparing the curriculum. Therefore, if necessary, schools may consult either vertically or horizontally. Vertically, the school may consult the District Education Office or the City, Provincial Education, Quality Assurance Institute of Education (LPMP) Province, and the Ministry of National Education. While horizontally, schools can partner with education stakeholders in formulating the curriculum. For example, industry, handicraft, tourism, farmers, fishermen, professional organizations, and so that the curriculum made by the school was really able to answer the needs in areas where the school is located.

  1. Encourage teachers, principals, and the school management to further enhance creativity in the administration of educational programs.
    With a curriculum guide based on the level of primary and secondary education unit made ​​by BNSP, schools were given flexibility to design, develop, and implement school curriculum according to the situation, conditions, and potential local benefits that can be raised by the school. Schools can develop higher standards of content standards and standards of competency.
    As is known, the principle of curriculum development are (1) Based on the potential, progress, needs and interests of learners and their environment, (2) Diverse and integrated, (3) Responding to developments in science, technology, and art, (4) Relevant with the needs of life, (5) Comprehensive and sustained (6) of lifelong learning; (7) and the balance between national interests and regional interests. Based on these principles, SBC is very relevant to the concept of decentralization of education in line with the implementation of regional autonomy and the concept of school-based management (SBM) which includes the autonomy of schools in it. Local governments can more freely improvise in improving the quality of education. In addition, schools were given autonomy along with the school committee set its own curriculum in accordance with the needs in the field.
  1. SBC is possible for every school to focus and develop specific subjects are acceptable for the needs of students.
    In accordance with the policy of the Ministry of National Education as stipulated in Regulation No. minister. 22 Year 2006 on Content Standards (SI) and Regulation No. minister. 23 of 2006 on Standards of Competence Graduates (SKL), schools are required to prepare their own curriculum. Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) that allows schools focus on certain subjects that are considered most needed students. For instance, schools that are in the area of ​​tourism can be more focused on the subjects of English or subjects in other tourism areas.
    schools not only makes the matter of English and tourism as subjects, but more than that to make these subjects as a skill. So later if the learners in this environment have finished their studies when they have no desire to continue her studies to pursue their college work directly apply the knowledge and skills already acquired in school.
    SBC is actually easier, because teachers are given the freedom to develop students’ competence in accordance with the environment and local culture. SBC also does not regulate in detail the teaching and learning activities (KBM) in the classroom, but teachers and schools were given discretion to develop itself in accordance with state and local students. In addition, the bottom line is that that will be issued by BNSP is not a curriculum but rather Guidelines for Curriculum Development, 2006
  1. SBC will reduce the burden of student learning is very dense and weigh approximately 20%..

With SBC’s entry into force will be able to reduce the burden of learning as much as 20% because SBC is much simpler. In addition to class hours will be reduced between 100-200 hours per year, teaching materials that are considered burdensome students would be reduced. Although there is a reduction of hours of lessons and teaching materials, SBC still put pressure on developing students’ competencies.
Reduction of hours of student learning is a recommendation from BNSP. This recommendation can be said quite unique, because for years the burden of student learning have not changed, and usually that change is the teaching methods and textbooks alone. Hour lessons are usually applied to students previously ranged between 1000-1200 hours of lessons a year. If the usual one-hour lessons for elementary, junior high and high school is 45 minutes, then BNSP recommendation proposes the reduction for SD to 35 minutes every hour lesson, for the junior to 40 minutes, and for the high school has not changed, which is still 45 minutes every hour lesson. Total of 1,000 hours of lessons in one year, assuming there are 36-40 weeks a year effective learning activities in a week mengajar.dan includes 36-38 hours of lessons.
Reduction of class hours holding of the reasons is because according to education experts that the lessons in schools had been too much. Moreover, there are many teaching and learning activities that focused on face-to-face classroom activities. So that the atmosphere created was a very formal impression. Impact may not realize is that students are too burdened with hours of lessons. Due to further the affects childhood development.

This problem is more pronounced for elementary and junior high students. In the age of the child, they need time to play enough to develop his personality. Formal atmosphere created by the school, plus the standard hours of lessons a relatively long time, will certainly give a psychological impact on the child’s own. Many experts are assessing the school had been depriving the child to develop naturally personality.

This is the rationale that the school hours for students needs to be reduced. However, the reduction was not carried to the extreme by cutting the hours the frequency of student-related subjects in the classroom. But a little cut, or eliminate the saturation point students towards the subjects of the day due to too long struggled with the lesson.

It could be argued that the implementation of this curriculum as a continuous improvement efforts. For example, the 1994 curriculum can be judged as a heavy curriculum in its application. 1994 when enacted curriculum many schools are too eager to improve the competence of science students, science and technology so that the charge was raised. But the unfortunate human resources available are not yet ready, so the result is only about 30% of students are able to implement the curriculum.

  1. SBC provides wider opportunities to schools, plus to develop a curriculum that suits your needs.
    The pattern of new curricula (SBC) will give a fresh breeze in schools nationwide that call themselves a plus. Private schools are now rife that sprung up since the last few years have developed variations on the curriculum set by the government. So when the government then it should require the enrichment of each school, schools, plus it will obviously be welcomed.The presence of SBC could be good news for schools plus. Some schools plus those who are worried there are reprimanded for wearing or using the term bilingual curriculum is diverse in its present form. Now all forms of improvisation is not exempt from the guidelines set out in the curriculum.For example, High School Scope Indonesia, formerly from the start stand in 1990 has used a combination of curriculum Indonesia with the United States (U.S.). Although licensed by the U.S., but it still comply with the government curriculum. The trick to comply with the minimum limit, but optimally provide emphasis on certain aspects that are not regulated by the curriculum. For example to keep providing the material in Indonesian, but use English as main language of instruction.

B. Weaknesses SBC

Each curriculum that implemented in Indonesia in addition has certain advantages also have weaknesses-weaknesses. As logical consequences of the implementation of this curriculum, at least according to the authors there are some weaknesses-weaknesses in the curriculum and its application, among which are as follows:

  1. Lack of human resources is expected to describe the curriculum in most existing educational unit.

The pattern of application of SBC or knock on the 2006 curriculum was the lack of quality teachers and schools. Most teachers can not be expected to contribute thoughts and creative ideas to describe the curriculum guide (SBC), both on paper and in front of the class. Besides caused by low qualifications, also caused the pattern of the old curriculum who already curb the creativity of teachers.

  1. Lack of availability of facilities and infrastructure to support the completeness of the implementation of the curriculum.

Availability of facilities and infrastructure are complete and representative is one of the most urgent requirement for the implementation of the curriculum. While conditions in the field indicates there are many educational units were minimal props, laboratories and facilities of the main requirements the application of SBC.

  1. There are still many teachers who have not been well understood in a comprehensive curriculum concept, formulation and practice in the field.
    The low quantity of teachers who are expected to understand and master the curriculum can be caused due to the implementation of socialization still has not been done thoroughly.
  2. Application of SBC is recommending the reduction of class hours will have reduced the income of the teachers.
    Implementation of the Education Unit Level Curriculum (SBC) will add to problems in education. Besides facing the school changed its curriculum unpreparedness, SBC also threaten the income of teachers. As is known to the implementation of recommendations related to SBC BSNP the implications for the reduction in the number of teaching hours. This resulted in a reduced number of teaching hours of teachers. As a result, teachers are threatened not get allowance and functional.

TASK 1 of Curriculum and Material Development Sunday, May 15 2011 

TASK 1 of Curriculum and Material Development

Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka

THE PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

By

Hariani / NIM : 098066012 Angkatan VI

Web Address : www.hariani25.wordpress.com

Lecturer: Hartoyo, MA., Ph.D

 

Ralph W. Tyler (1949) published his classic text on curriculum development. It was organized around four questions:

1.      What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

2.      What educational experiences can be provided that likely to attain the purposes?

3.      How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

4.      How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

Judith Howard (2007) tries to simplify (but does not change the meaning) the four basic principles in curriculum development . In his shot article Judith Howard, written to help educational institutions engage in curriculum building, called for the application of four corresponding principles in the development of any curriculum:

1.          Defining goals

2.          Establishing corresponding learning experiences

3.          Organizing learning experiences to have a cumulative effect

4.          Evaluating outcomes

A. The understanding about of  four basic principles

My understanding about the four basic principles of curriculum and instruction known as Tyler’s principles and then simplified by Judith Howard (2007) are as follows:

From the table of four basic principles of curriculum development bellow we can see a comparison of Tyler’s principles to principles  that have been simplified by Judith Howard (2007.

Table

A comparison of Tyler’s principles (1949) to Judith Howard (2007.

Ralph Tyler (1949)

Judith Howard (2007)

1.      What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

1.      Defining goals

2.      What educational experiences can be provided that likely to attain the purposes?

2.      Establishing corresponding learning experiences

3.      How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

3.      Organizing learning experiences to have a cumulative effect

4.      How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

4.      Evaluating outcomes

From the above table it can be concluded that Curriculum development should begin by answering four basic questions raised by Tyler. In answering Tyler’s questions, there are four  basic steps of curriculum development as follow:

  • Selection of aims, goal and objectives
  • Selecting of learning experiences and content
  • Organization of learning experiences
  • Evaluation of the extent to which the objectives have been achieved

Four basic steps of curriculum development must be conducted in curriculum development so that the goals and objectives will be compatible with mission of institution and others stakeholder.

1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain?

This means that the first step of curriculum development is to determine what AIMs, GOALs, and OBJECTIVEs should be attained in each level of education, elementary school, secondary school and high school.

Institution should define overall goals and aims for the curriculum. Specific measurable knowledge, skill/ performance, attitude, and process objectives should be stated for the curriculum.
Learning goals and outputs for every course and subject should be compatible with mission of institution. It means that achieving of learning goals of different subjects and courses will lead to reaching mission of institution at the end of student studding process.

2.      What educational experiences can be provided that likely to attain the purposes?

The educational experiences can be provided that likely to achieve the purposes. Learning experiences that may be useful in attaining these goals will be selected must meet the criteria for selecting experience; are they:

  • valid in light of the ways in which knowledge and skills will be applied in out-of-school experiences?
  • feasible in terms of time, staff expertise, facilities available within and outside of the school, community expectations?
  • optimal in terms of students’ learning the content?
  • capable of allowing students to develop their thinking skills and rational powers?
  • capable of stimulating in students greater understanding of their own existence as individuals and as members of groups?
  • capable of fostering in students an openness to new experiences and a tolerance for diversity?
  • such that they will facilitate learning and motivate students to continue learning?
  • capable of allowing students to address their needs?
  • such that students can broaden their interests?
  • such that they will foster the total development of students in cognitive, affective, psychomotor, social, and spiritual domains?

3.      How can these educational experiences be effectively organized?

Education experiences must be organized to reinforce each other. We have to plan and organize the appropriate method, technique and the ways to achieve the goals  effectively.

4.      How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained?

To make sure  whether the purposes are being attained or not, of course we have to do evaluation. We have to evaluate all the experiences without exception. And this evaluation should be conducted continuously by the evaluator, in order to develop curriculum from time to time.

“The process of evaluation,” according to Tyler, “is essentially the process of determining to what extent the educational objectives are actually being realized by the program of curriculum and instruction.”

 

B. My comments toward the  principles proposes by Tyler and Judith

I understand and basically agree with the four principles of curriculum development are proposed by Tyler and Judith. I agree that the first step of Curriculum development  we have to answer four basic questions proposes  by Tyler and subsequently implement the steps are proposed by Judith. But it should be noted that the four principles or four steps are just a basic, Because they can be more than four in doing details of curriculum development.

The principles of curriculum development proposed by Ralph W. Tyler (1949) is a  monumental work on the principles of curriculum development has been referred and cited by curriculum developer/specialist around the world. I have proved this after I read a lot of literatures and journals on curriculum development, almost all books and journals on curriculum development referred and quoted Tyler’s principles.

Task of ICT- CD Evaluation Thursday, Feb 4 2010 

Task of ICT- CD Evaluation

Task of ICT in Language Learning

Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka

CALL CD EVALUATION

By

Hariani / NIM : 098066012 Angt. VI Class IA

Web Address : www.hariani25.wordpress.com

Lecturer: Hartoyo, MA., Ph.D

A. INTRODUCTION

The Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) teaching method has become more and more accessible and convenient to ESL students. CALL become popular along with the growing of technology. CALL has been also integrated into the language learning purposing in achieving better process and result of the language teaching and learning.  CALL is developed for its advantages toward the language learning such as motivating the students, providing authentic materials, stimulating the students to have critical thinking and adapting learning to students. The emergence of CALL, of course contribute a lot in revolutionizing the language learning methods. Learning English by using the CALL CD is the most widely used, because it is easy to use and relatively inexpensive cost.

B. OBJECTIVE

Purpose of the writing of this peper is to evaluate the 4 CDs given by my lecture as a task of ICT course. In doing this evaluation will refer to the 5 basic principles: Interractivity (Feedback and Instruction), Usabillity (Flexibillity), Content Appropriateness, Effectiveness, and Performance (Attractiveness).

C. EVALUATION

Evaluation basic principles

1. Interractivity (Feedback and Instruction)

    Interractivity refers to how the program can stimulate interraction, especially interraction between the computer and the user. It includes the effectiveness of the instructions and feedback provided in the program.

    2.  Usabillity (Flexibillity)

    Usabillity (Flexibillity) refers to the flexibility, ease, inherent interest of the program used, and how easy it is to navigate within the program.

    3.  Content Appropriateness

    Content Appropriateness is concerned with the amount of material presented in the program, how easily the material is learned and understood, and how far the material meets the students need.

    4.  Effectiveness

    Effectiveness refers to how effectively the program assist the language learners to improve their mastery of grammar.

    5. Performance (Attractiveness)

    Performance refers to the presentation, layout of the screen, the color, and the illustrations (picture, diagram, charts, etc.) used in the program.

    Evaluation Result

    My assessment standard result based on the condition of the students I handle in English classroom.

    CD 1. English Word

    1 Interractivity

    (Feedback & Instruction)

    Students need to be assisted by teacher in how to operate the program. Some parts of the instructions are hard to be understood.
    2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are flexible and  easy to navigate.
    3 Content Appropriateness The content can be used since it is appropriate with the guidelined topics and is addressed for the prebasic students.
    4 Effectiveness Quite effective
    5 Performance (Attractiveness) Shapes and colors are attractive. Music sound is too loud which distruct the instruction.
    Conclusion Suitable for primary students grade 3 and up.

    CD 2. Vocabulary

    1 Interractivity

    (Feedback & Instruction)

    The instructions are clear and help interractivity easier.
    2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are flexible and easy to navigate.
    3 Content Appropriateness The content can be used since it is appropriate with the guidelined topics and is addressed for the basic students.
    4 Effectiveness Very effective. The students can choose the level of difficulties suitable with their competence.
    5 Performance (Attractiveness) The animation colors and music are attractive.
    Conclusion Suitable for primary students grade 4 and up.

    CD 3. Learn English “Beginners”

    1 Interractivity

    (Feedback & Instruction)

    The program allows good interractivity.
    2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials in the program meets the students’ need to learn english interractively.
    3 Content Appropriateness The content help the students to learn English from the beginning.
    4 Effectiveness Very effective. The native speakers provide the real model.
    5 Performance (Attractiveness) The whole package(pictures and colors) is attractive.
    Conclusion Suitable for primary students grade 6 and secondary students.

    CD 4. Speak English “ Intermediate”

    1 Interractivity

    (Feedback & Instruction)

    The program provide communicative activity that stimulate the students to get involve.
    2 Usability (Flexibility) The materials are flexible and understandable.
    3 Content Appropriateness The content help the students in practicing their speaking ability.
    4 Effectiveness Very effective.
    5 Performance (Attractiveness) The whole perfomance is great.
    Conclusion Suitable for secondary students and up.

    D. CONCLUSION

    Looking at the  Evaluation Result above the writer conclude in generally that the CDs fulfill the five basic principles: Interractivity (Feedback and Instruction), Usabillity (Flexibillity), Content Appropriateness, Effectiveness, and Performance (Attractiveness). CD1 suitable for primary students grade 3 and up, CD2 suitable for primary students grade 4 and up, CD3 suitable for primary students grade 6 and secondary students,   and CD4 Suitable for secondary students and up.

    Final Exam of ICT in Language Learning Wednesday, Jan 27 2010 

    Final Exam of ICT in Language Learning

    Universitas Muhammadiyah Prof. Dr. Hamka


    The Study of Using Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) for Making Decision in Choosing Best Learning Tool

    By:  H a r i a n i

    Submitted to fulfill the FINAL EXAM of ICT in LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Lecturer: Hartoyo, MA., Ph.D


    1. Introduction

    Using Computers and the Internet today have become so widespread and have expanded so dramatically. The computer has brought a revolution in education. The computers play significant role in the learning process. Teaching English for a second-language learner can take benefit from using a computer. Indeed, a computer is a tool and medium that facilitates people in learning a language, although the effectiveness of learning depends totally on the users (Hartoyo 2008, 11).

    Nowadays,   the numbers of English teachers using Computer Assisted-Learning language (CALL) has increased markedly. In addition, many articles have been written about the role of it in English learning. Although the potential of the Internet for educational use has not been fully explored yet and the average school still makes limited use of computers for some reasons , it is obvious that we have entered a new information age in which the links between ICT and EFL have already been established. This paper focuses on the educational role of computer in learning a Foreign Language and  discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL). By knowing well the advantages and disadvantages the teachers, learners and all of stakeholders could be able to determine and chose the best tool that will be used in teaching and learning language.

    2. Objective

    This paper is aimed at discussing what CALL is and what advantages and disadvantages CALL offers so as we know its strength and weaknesses in their usage for teaching English for ESL students. By knowing well the advantages and disadvantages of using CALL, it will be very useful to help  teachers, learners and all stakeholders to make decision in choosing the best learning tool.

    3. Review and Related Literature

    Definition

    CALL originates from CAI (Computer-Accelerated Instruction), a term that was first viewed as an aid for teachers. The philosophy of CALL puts a strong emphasis on student-centered lessons that allow the learners to learn on their own using structured and/or unstructured interactive lessons. These lessons carry 2 important features: bidirectional (interactive) learning and individualized learning. CALL is not a method. It is a tool that helps teachers to facilitate language learning process. CALL can be used to reinforce what has been learned in the classrooms. It can also be used as remedial to help learners with limited language proficiency.( From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

    Advantages of CALL

    Ahmad et al (1985) evaluating the pedagogical contribution of computer admits that the feelings of enthusiasm and enjoyment that the learners who use CALL programs experience, create a positive attitude to the activity of learning and to the subject matters.

    According to the same writer  the advantages of computer fall into three types: those which “are part of inherent nature,” those which “benefit the teacher,” and those which “benefit the learner” (Ahmat et al 1985:4). Because of its inherent nature computer can handle a much wider range of activities, and much more powerfully, than other technological aids. More than just this, the computer can offer interactive learning by conducting a two-way learning session with the student. It is much more than a mere programmed textbook, whose powers of interaction are virtually limited to an ability to reveal the correct answer.

    The computer can work accurately and precisely. It does not tire, and its attention does not alter. It can repeat an activity with none of the errors which easily arise from repetition by humans. “It can handle a very large volume of interaction and can deliver to students feedback of some subtlety, at more frequent intervals than would be possible for a human teacher in all but individual tuition session.” (Ahmat et al 1985:4)

    Another potentiality of the computer is its ability to create highly motivating microworlds. Computers can create small worlds that students explore freely. For example, a student can rearrange reading topics to suit personal needs. He can even become one of the characters in a story and directly influence its outcome.

    The computer can also provide privacy to students who can “work freely without being too concerned by possible errors whereas in the classroom they would hold back” (Demaiziere 1983 11-12 in Ahmad et al 1985: 115).

    From the point of view of the teacher, the computer presents aspects of a particular promise. Prominent among these is the versatility in handling different kinds of materials. The simplest is the one way presentation of information, in the form of text, graphic, audio and video. “The computer can take the drudgery out of teaching by doing all the boring, repetitive work, leaving to the human teacher the more creative aspects of the job. The computer is an obedient beast and will readily take on the role of drudge if required to.” (Higgins & Johns 1984:9). It can keep score and display the score, records results, errors, success rates, the time spent, and much more information for the teacher to view at a later time. Thus, the teacher can examine students’ errors and scores and other information and decide about the students’ progress and the efficiency of CALL materials. Therefore, the teacher has the possibility to modify easily the exercises and materials he prepares and at the same time the teacher can have access to detail information on his pupils strengths, weaknesses, and progress, which helps them to assess individual learners. So, the computer offers the opportunity to teachers to make better use of their time and expertise and allows them to spend more time on preparation and on activities such as discussion, simulation or project work (Kenning and Kenning 1983). By providing a means of usefully occupying part of the class, it opens up the possibility of small group activities. So in a way computers contribute to a creative and imaginative teaching method in those parts of the course where teacher-student contact is more necessary.

    The teacher who uses the computer in his/her teaching should give up the concept of a teacher who is the “knower” giving  his students the opportunity to share in his knowledge. Ager (1986: 103-104) seems to share that concept when he admits that  “Language teaching has always suffered from the necessity for teachers to play God” The new role of teacher is no longer to disseminate knowledge as such, but how to help students get access and aquire information so that knowledge is succeeded.

    For students the computer offers many advantages because of flexibility of time and the variety of educational courses it offers to students who may choose when and how long to spend on studying particular topics. More than this, the computer can also allow students to take courses, or parts of courses, at a distance.

    Whatever the factors of time and distance, the computer retains its potential for personalized instruction. The computer can be made sensitive to the learner’s pace, pattern of response, and so on, and can adjust the linguistic material to meet the individual. The fact that the computer provides student with an immediate reply after his/her response is very motivating and keeps his/her interest to continue. While working with the computer the student has the computer’s full attention and can work at the speed best suited to the individual. Experience has shown that learning with a computer is rated high by students. “There is a novelty of working with the computer, together with its diversity and sophistication. And there is an element of competition. Students like ‘talking on computer’ and trying to beat it”. (Ahmad et al 1985:6).

    According to Kuang We Lee, the advantages of using CALL are :

    Experiential Learning

    In learning activities, the students often feel bored. They need something different in methodology of learning to fresh their mind. Using CALL can be experienced as a good methodology of learning. They found different in learning activities because they found the newest things. Using computer is as experiential learning because it can make them familiar with the computer. The students can explore their competence in reading, writing, listening and speaking. Besides, CALL is also can fresh their mind to choose which topic that they want. The World Wide Web makes it possible for students to tackle a huge amount of human experience. In such a way, they can learn by doing things themselves. They become the creators not just the receivers of knowledge. As the way information is presented is not linear, users develop thinking skills and choose what to explore.

    Motivation

    Computer can motivate them to learn foreign language because the students will find an interesting picture in the screen. Their motivation will be increased in learning foreign language and it influences their understanding in mastering the materials. Computers are also most popular among students either because they are associated with fun and games or because they are considered to be fashionable. Student motivation is therefore increased, especially whenever a variety of activities are offered, which make them feel more independent. Their motivation will be more developed when they feel successful in using, operate and practice the computer in the daily life.

    Enhanced Student Achievement

    Computer assists the teacher to teach foreign language to the students. The teacher can achieve the students by using computer immediately. The teacher know the students’ competence and he/she build and develop their competence to be confidence. If they master in using computer, they will be confident to communicate and share each others. Network-based instruction can help pupils strengthen their linguistic skills by positively affecting their learning attitude and by helping them build self-instruction strategies and promote their self-confidence.

    Authentic Materials for Study

    Sometimes, we have difficult in searching materials but by using computer, we can easily search materials. The students can browse and download any information which they want in computer. All students can use various resources of authentic reading materials either at school or from their home. Those materials can be accessed 24 hours a day at a relatively low cost. When they learning, they can choose which material they want. The source from computer is authentic when the email address is complete and clear.

    Greater Interaction

    Actually, computer is a thing but the students can find everything inside it. The students can also interact with people around the world via computer. It is a great tool to enhance the students’ speaking skill. The students try to practice and communicate with the people they never met. Random access to Web pages breaks the linear flow of instruction. By sending E-mail and joining newsgroups, EFL students can communicate with people they have never met. They can also interact with their own classmates. Furthermore, some Internet activities give students positive and negative feedback by automatically correcting their on-line exercises.

    Individualization

    In CALL learning activities, the students will always interact with the computer. The teacher prompts to avoid the individualization by giving group working to discuss or solve the problem given. Although the students use the computer as assistant but they will always interact and play with their friends in learning.

    Shy or inhibited students can be greatly benefited by individualized, student-centered collaborative learning. High fliers can also realize their full potential without preventing their peers from working at their own pace.

    Independence from a Single Source of Information

    Although students can still use their books, they are given the chance to escape from canned knowledge and discover thousands of information sources. They can get any sources from the computer. They also free to choose and browse the topic of information. As a result, their education fulfils the need for interdisciplinary learning in a multicultural world.

    Global Understanding

    A foreign language is studied in a cultural context. In a world where the use of the Internet becomes more and more widespread, an English Language teacher’s duty is to facilitate students’ access to the web and make them feel citizens of a global classroom, practicing communication on a global level. They will know and understand the real global by interacting and communicating with the computer. They won’t be left out with the development of global world.

    Disadvantages of CALL

    A number of factors have contributed to growing acceptance of the potential role of the computer in the language teaching curriculum. Some of the objections referring to CALL involve general philosophical notions about language as a humanities subject to which a mechanical device such as the computer can make no contribution. Some of the computer criticisms are related to the nature of the computer itself, while others to the present state of CALL. According to Thomas “the prospect of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) has worried teachers even more, since it unites all the anxieties-greater success, exploitation of mysterious and secret technologies, and eventually, the replacement of the teacher his/ herself. (Thomas 1986:113).The same writer evaluating the use of computer in Language Learning dares an “ideological” criticism claiming that the ready- made programs seem to impose the curriculum and teaching materials on the teacher, mainly on those who lack authoring skills.”

    The fact that most of the computer programs are rather “importable” is considered as a drawback by Ahmad et al (1985) since they need modification, which is not always possible and surely it is time-consuming.

    There is in addition, the question of the range of activities to which the computer can contribute. Computers are not suited to all activities that go on in the classroom. The kind of exercises which lends itself best to computerization is one in which there is only a small set of acceptable answers to each question and in which it is fairly easy to predict where the learner may go wrong.

    While the computer is able to accommodate a substantial range of learning styles, it is certainly not a complete substitute for the teacher: “The material which can usefully be handled by the computer represents at best a tiny fraction of the linguistic knowledge which a teacher brings to bear in language class”. (Ahmad et al 1985:7) Kenning and Kenning (1983:4) denote that the computer “operates in a predetermined fashion and cannot cope with the unexpected.” It cannot effectively conduct an ‘open-ended’ dialogue with the student because it has neither the vocabulary, nor the ability, to understand the enormous range of utterances possible in any human language. The computer cannot handle ambiguity with any confidence. It can ‘learn’ only in a restricted sense.

    Types of activities which require spoken production are not suited to CALL because the computer cannot understand the spoken input from the learner. It can only respond to students if it is programmed. The computer does not work well in tasks which demand rapid extensive reading from the screen of language texts. Books do the job better. Computer activities which involve rebuilding or rearranging texts have proved their value.

    The development of CALL, according to Ahmad et al (1985: 8) requires knowledge of three fields: “competence in the target subject area,” “pedagogical skills”, and “computing expertise”. (Ahmad et al 1985: 8) In language teaching it is seldom the case that any one individual  has a sufficient competence in all these  skills from the beginning. The solution to the problem is given by Ahamad et al (1985) who suggest cooperation between computing and language experts and a serious effort from the language teacher to learn a programming or an author language.

    Many experts have asserted that the computer can enhance linguistic competence but it can do nothing to develop communicative competence. However, through properly designed activities, the student can have “feeling” for how the forms of a foreign language are used in communication. This is what the project carried out at Concordia University tried to do. Its orientation was “to develop more communicative and discourse -oriented material that was the computer’s preeminent ability as an interactive partner” (Wyatt 1984: 36).

    A considerable disadvantage of the use of computer in Language Learning is that it cannot-yet-operate in the same way as the human brain, taking imaginative leaps and cutting through a tangled web of argument to arrive at new insights. Underwood (1984:45 ) adds another drawback of CALL programs when he denotes that the computer miss “anything resembling what we do when we use language, any semblance of communication, even so much as the ‘feel’ of conversation language.

    4. Analysis

    Computer mediated learning has more strength compared to previous methods. One of the strength is the interactivity. When utilizing computer for language learning, user are presented with materials on computer program which they can select or skip depending on whether the material meet the users need or not. Unlike the existing previous method that requires learners to learn on the same pace, CALL accommodate both fast and slow learners to learn effectively. The fast learners can keep moving from one material to another material when they feel that they have mastered it, without being restrained by slow learners. On the other hand, slow learners can review the material for several times without being distracted by negative comments from their friends who are faster. This way slow learners won’t feel discourage but more motivated instead. Hop, et al (1984:16) argues that:

    good program can offer , in this way, individualized attention and can allow students to work at their own pace. Students can work in privacy without fear of reprisal or ridicule regardless of how slow they might be or how often they give incorrect answer . immediate diagnosis saves time and frustration and help students weed out their errors. Computer possesses the quality of infinite patience. They treat any students in the same way without favoritism. They are also very consistent in their response, regardless of how many hours they have been working. Even the best teachers can’t show the same level of enthusiasm , interest, and energy

    Compared to other methods for language learning which should be done at the same the time and place, computer give opportunity for learners who have different time availability. This is possible because computer is flexible that utilization doesn’t require users to be in the same time and at the same place.

    How ever teachers should consider the following guidelines when utilizing CALL, which conform to some pedagogical principles :

    a. Goals. Once the aims are specified, appropriate, task and activities can be designed.

    b.  Integration. Computer based task should be integrated into course of curriculum as a whole.

    c.  Technical Support. Although many students are quite knowledge able about the computer, sufficient support should be provided to avoid problem of technical nature.

    d.  Learners Center Teaching. As much as possible, T should involve learners throughout the entire instructional process.

    Computer as media for language learning can be utilized in many ways to improve learners language skill. First, with CD program, user can practice grammar, vocabularies, listening, reading, even speaking. The program present various material that can pull skill learners need. Second, computer which is equipped with network – internet enable user to learn the language through various activities since there’s a big number of website providing various material. Users can sharpen their listening skill by accessing dialog carried out by native speaker. They can even communicate either written or orally with their for ready through but the world. Worschaver & Whittaker : 2002. States that there are skubal reason for using the internet in language teaching. One rationale is found in the belief that the linguistic nature of online communication is desirable for promoting language learning.

    Conclusion

    Based on the results of the study, the advantages of CALL can be outlined as providing motivation and autonomy for learner, compatible and time flexible learning, immediate and detailed feedback, error analysis, and a process syllabus. Some considerations must be given to the disadvantages of CALL, such as less handy equipment, high cost of education, lack of trained teachers and of CALL programs of perfect quality, and limited capacity of computers to handle unexpected situations. Looking at the  related literature and analysis above the writer conclude that computer as mediated-language learning can be one of prefered and selected media to learn language effectivelly. It is costly enough for some people, but it is worth to have the effectiveness of CALL it self.

    Bibliographical References

    Hartoyo, Ma, Ph.D. 2006. Individual Differences in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Semarang: Universitas Negeri Semarang Press.

    Ager,D., (1986) “Help levels in CALL materials ” in Cameron, K. C. Dodd, W.S. and Rahtz, S.P.Q. Computers and Modern Language Studies Ellis Horwood Ltd.

    Ahmad, K., Greville, C., Rogers. M., & Sussex R., 1985.Computers, Language Learning and Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP.

    Breffni O’ Rourk & Klaus Schwienhorst, (2000). Learner databases and virtual worlds: Using Computers to create collaborative learning environments. Dublin, ALC & IRAAL

    Demaiziere, 1983: 11-12 in Ahmad et all 1985:115).

    Freundenstein in Alatis J E, Altman , Alatis PM. (1981: 275).

    Geoffrion, Leo D & Olga P. Geoffrion. 1983:. Computers and Reading Instruction. Reading : Addison –Wesley Publishing co.

    Higgins,J & Johns, T., (1984:)Computers in Language Learning : London: Collins.

    Higgins, J., (1986). “Reading, Writing and pointing: communicating with the computer” In Geoffrey Leech & Christopher N. Candlin (eds), Computers in English language Teaching and Research, London: Longman.

    Kenning and Kenning (1983:2) An introduction to Computer Assisted Language Teaching Cambridge: CUP.

    Krashen, S., (1987). Pinciples and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. London Prentice -Hall International

    Last, R. W., (1984,3). Language Teaching and the Microcomputer. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

    Leech, Geoffrey & Christopher N. Candlin (eds), (1986). Computers in English Language Teaching and Research. London: Longman.

    Levy, M., (1997) Computer Language Learning: Context and Conceptualization. Clarendon  Paperbacks.

    Phillips, M., (1986). “CALL in its educational context”. In Geoffrey Leech & Christopher N. Candlin (eds), Computers in English Language Teaching and Research, London: Longman.

    Taylor, R. P., (1980) (ed.), The Computer in the School: Tutor, Tool ,Tutee, Teacher’s College, Collumbia University (New York: Teacher;s College Press, New Work) .

    Underwood, J. H., (1984).Linguistics, Computers and the Language Teacher. Newbury House Publishers, Inc.

    Warschaucer, M., (1995) E-mail for English teaching: Bringing the internet and computer learning networks into the language classroom Illinois: TESOL inc.

    Warschauer, Mark & Whittaker Fawn.2002.The Internet for English Teaching: Guidelines forTeachers. Methodology in Language Teaching. An Anthology of CurrentPractice. 368-372

    Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-assisted_language_learning

    The advantages and disadvantages of Using CALL Wednesday, Jan 13 2010 

    Mid-Test ICT

    Subject                         : ICT

    Lecture                         : Hartoyo,M.A.,Ph.D

    Student’s name            : Hariani

    Semester/Class            : I/A

    The advantages and disadvantages of Using CALL

    Introduction

    Nowadays, computer and internet have been part of our live, especially in the area of education. The computers play significant role in the learning process. Teaching English for a second-language learner can take benefit from using a computer. The effectiveness of using computer for learning language depends totally on  the users because as known that computer is only  tool and medium for learning. (Hartoyo 2008, 11).

    Some of the English teachers presently have used Computer Assisted Learning Language (CALL). They thought that utilizing CALL is more effective than other media.  Although the potential of the Internet for educational use has not been fully explored yet and the average school still makes limited use of computers for some reasons, it is obvious that we have entered a new information age in which the links between ICT and EFL have already been established. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the definition of CALL and the strength and weaknesses of using CALL by knowing its advantages and disadvantages which is offered.

    The definition of CALL

    CALL may be defined as a program derived from CAL (Computer-Assisted Learning) which is implemented to language, but the use of computer here is mainly aimed at providing a language learning tutorial program (Hartoyo 2008, 21). In addition, Egbert (2005, 4) says that CALL means students learn language in any context with, through, and around computer technologies. From both definitions, the main focus of CALL is on the application of computers in language learning.

    Advantages of CALL

    Many educators (Jonassen 1996, Salaberry 1999, Rost 2002 in Lai 2006) indicate that the current computer technology has many advantages for second language learning. The following are the advantages as stated by many experts:

    1. Interest and motivation

    Classical language teaching in classroom can be monotonous, boring, and even frustrating, and students can loose interest and motivation in learning. CALL programmers can provide student ways to learn English through computer games, animated graphics, and problem-solving techniques which can make drills more interesting (Ravichandran 2000).

    2. Individualization

    CALL allows learners to have non-sequential learning habit; they can decide on their own which skills to develop and which course to use, as well as the speed and level by their own needs.

    3. A compatible learning style

    Students have different style of learning, and an incompatible style for students will cause serious conflicts to them. Computer can provide an exciting “fast” drill for one student and “slow” for another.

    4. Optimal use of learning time

    The time flexibility of using computer enables students to choose appropriate timing for learning. Winter (1997) in Kiliçkaya (2007) stressed the importance of flexible learning, learning anywhere, anytime, anyhow, and anything you want, which is very true for the web-based instruction and CALL. Learners are given a chance to study and review the materials as many times they want without limited time.

    5. Immediate feedback

    Students receive maximum benefit from feedback only if it is given immediately. A delayed positive feedback will reduce the encouragement and reinforcement, and a delayed negative feedback affect the crucial knowledge a student must master. Computer can give instant feedback and help the students ward off his misconception at the very first stage. Brown (1997) in Kiliçkaya (2007) listed the advantages of CALL as giving immediate feedback, allowing students at their own pace, and causing less frustration among students.

    6.  Error analysis

    Computer database can be used by teacher to classify and differentiate the type of general error and error on account of the influence of the first language. A computer can analyze the specific mistakes that students made and can react in different way from the usual teacher, which make students able to make self-correction and understand the principle behind the correct solution. (Ravichandran, 2007)

    7. Guided and repetitive practice

    Students have freedom of expression within certain bounds that programmers create, such as grammar, vocabulary, etc. They can repeat the course they want to master as many as they wish. According to Ikeda (1999) in Kiliçkaya (2007), drill-type CALL materials are suitable for repetitive practice, which enable students to learn concepts and key elements in a subject area.

    8. Pre-determined to process syllabus

    Computer enhances the learning process from a pre-determined syllabus to an emerging or process syllabus. For example, a monotonous paper exercise of ‘fill-in-the-blanks’ type can be made more exciting on the screen in the self-access mode, and students can select their own material. Therefore, CALL facilitates the synthesis of the pre-planned syllabus and learner syllabuses “through a decision-making process undertaken by teacher and learners together” (Breen 1986 in Ravichandran 2000).

    Disadvantages of CALL

    Although there are many advantages of computer, the application of current computer technology still has its limitations and disadvantages. Some disadvantages of CALL are as follows:

    According to Ansel et al (1992) in Hartoyo (2008, 31), the CAL program is different from traditional books that are small enough  to be carried around and studied wherever and whenever student wish: on a train, at home, in the middle of the night, and so on. School computers or language laboratory can only be accessed in restricted hours, so CALL program only benefits people who have computers at home or personal notebook.

    Increased educational costs. Gips, DiMattia, and Gips (2004) in Lai (2006) indicated that CALL will increase educational cost, since computers become a basic requirement for students to purchase, and low-budget school and low income students cannot afford a computer

    1. Lack of trained teachers

    It is necessary for teachers and students to have basic technology knowledge before applying computer technology in second language teaching and learning. Therefore, computers will only benefit those who are familiar with computer technology (Roblyer 2003 in Lai 2006).

    2. Imperfect current CALL programs

    At present, the software of CALL mainly deals with reading, listening, and writing skills. There are some speaking programs have been developed recently, but their functions are still limited. Warschauer (2004) in Lai (2006) stated that a program should ideally be able to understand a user’s spoken input and evaluate it not just for correctness but also for ‘appropriatness’. Speaking program should be able to diagnose a learner’s problem with pronunciation, syntax, or usage and then intelligently decide among a range of options.

    3. Inability to handle unexpected situations

    The learning situation that a second-language learner faces are various and ever changing. Computers merely have artificial intelligence, and it cannot deal with learner’s unexpected learning problem or response to learner’s questions immediately as teachers do. Blin (1994) in Lai (2006) stated that computer technology with that degree do not exist, and are not expected to exist quite a long time. In other words, today’s computer technology and its language learning programs are not yet intelligent enough to be truly interactive.

    Conclusion

    From the text above, we can conclude that the advantages of CALL are providing motivation and autonomy for learner, compatible and time flexible learning, immediate and detailed feedback, error analysis, and a process syllabus. But these advantages sometimes are hung up because of some reasons, such as less handy equipment, high cost of education, lack of trained teachers and of CALL programs of perfect quality, and limited capacity of computers to handle unexpected situations.

    The use of CALL is now become a new trend in language learning and instruction, because the technological development and advancement has enabled this application. But one of the obstacle is computer technology still has weakness and limitation. So, before applying CALL program to improve our teaching or to help student learning, firstly we have to realizing the advantages and disadvantages of them. Therefore, before applying CALL in ESL classrooms, teachers should know the advantages and disadvantages and also strength and weakness of CALL. Finally, the mistake in employing CALL program can be kept away and the maximum benefit for our ESL teaching and learning can be obtained.

    Bibliographical References

    Hartoyo, Ma, Ph.D. 2008. Individual Differences in Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Semarang: Pelita Insani Semarang.2008.

    Kiliçkaya, Ferit. 2007. The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning on Turkisk Learners’ Achievement on The TOEFL Exam. htpp://www.iatefl.org.pl/call/j_soft27.htm accessed December 26, 2009/ 17:10:00.

    Ravichandran, T., M.A., M. Phil., P.G.C.T.E., (Ph.D.) 2000. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the Perspective of Interactive Approach: Advantages and Apprehensions. Htpp://members.rediff.com/eximsankar/call.htm accessed December 26, 2009/ 18:15:00.

    The old House (1901) in Sei Bulan Tebing Tinggi SUMUT Friday, Jan 8 2010 

    Old house was built in 1901 , located in Sei Bulan Estate Tebing Tinggi North Sumatra

    The old house was in Sei Bulan plantation estate is owned by PT. London Sumatra is located in the district Bedage Serdang, North Sumatra. Located about 12 km from Tebing Tinggi. The old house was the home office for my father when he was still working as plantation staff there until 1986. Looked outside the home was preserved in the original when the house was built in 1901. The house was once occupied by estates manager came from England at the beginning of the plantation was opened. Now the old house has gone and been replaced with new homes. The company never thought to preserve the historic homes they owned. I have memories of the old house when I was young

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    Bandung City Monday, Dec 14 2009 

    Bandung, the capital of West Java province, located about 180 km (112 miles) southeast of Jakarta, is the fourth largest city in Indonesia. With over 2.9 million population in

    Hello world! Thursday, Dec 3 2009 

    Welcome to WordPress.com. This is your first post. Edit or delete it and start blogging!

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